Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 10 Inventing a Country: American Constitutions 1781–1789.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Inventing a Country: American Constitutions 1781–1789."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10 Inventing a Country: American Constitutions 1781–1789

2 State Constitutions State constitutions Written and comprehensive Sovereignty with the people Few chief executives Disestablished Church of England State constitutions showed democratic drift Constitutions included religious biases Most property-owning adult males could vote Included bill of rights

3 Liberty’s Limits Women Few rights to women Manumission in the South Many forbid importing new slaves Southern states make manumission easier Reasons were moral, religious, and philosophical Abolishing slavery in North Many states outlawed Others began gradual emanicipation

4 America Under the Articles of Confederation Articles of Confederation Written in 1776 and 1777 No executive Congress is total government Annual elections of Congressmen Forms league of friendship—not nation Sovereignty rests with each state Limited powers belong to Congress States have right to declare war, issue money Deliberately weak form of government

5 America Under the Articles America Under the Articles (cont.’d) The Western Lands States hold disputing land claims on western land Congress convinces states to cede the land Virginia leads the way Northwest Ordinances of 1784 and 1787 Provide procedure for territories to become states Establishes principle of U.S. not having colonies Admits new states on equal terms with old states Rectangular Survey, 1785 Congress prepares Northwest Territory for public sale Establishes townships of 6 miles square, 36 sections Section smallest tract that could be bought at $1/acre Forces buyers to take poor land with good

6 Map 10:2 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license.

7 Difficulties and Failures Money problems All 13 States must approve financial measures Congress could not levy taxes Congress prints large amounts of paper money States also print paper money Getting no respect Britain refuses to turn over Great Lake forts Foreign nations insult U.S. Barbary Pirates seize American ships & crews Disputes between states encourage foreign meddling Spanish controlled trade on Mississippi Vermont negotiated with Britain

8 Difficulties and Failures Difficulties and Failures (cont.’d) Calls for change Leaders recognize need to change Articles Leaders call for meeting at Annapolis in 1786 Poor participation at Annapolis meeting Call for additional meeting at Philadelphia Shay’s Rebellion Western Massachusetts farmers rebel Resent taxes, want to prevent debt collection Daniel Shays leads revolt Scares conservative class into changing Articles

9 The Constitution Constitutional Convention The Convention Met in Philadelphia in summer of 1787 Agreed to write new document Agreed to meet in secret Wanted constitution complete before public debates Delegates Writers known as “Founding Fathers” Wealthy, well-educated, politically prominent Keen students of political philosophy Relatively young Saw themselves as ”Americans”

10 The Constitution The Constitution (cont.’d) Conservatives Delegates feared darker side of human nature Believed man needed restraining institutions Alexander Hamilton wanted English traditions Others valued states and not hereditary privilege Mixed system of government Democratic – power in the hands of many Aristocratic – power in the hands of few Monocratic – power in the hands of one Checks, Limits, Balances Democratic: House of Representatives Aristocratic: Senate and Supreme Court Monocratic: Presidency Checks and balances tie branches together Amendment possible, but not easy

11 The Constitution The Constitution (cont.’d) Federal relationship Checks and balances define relationship between central government and states Decisive powers go to Federal government Great compromise: equal representation in Senate; representation in House based on population Constitution and Slavery Prohibits states from abolishing slave trade for 20 years Three-fifths compromise Dodged issue of slavery as much as possible

12 Ratification Needed 9 of 13 Federalists “shenanigans” Four states ratify easily Federalists work for ratification Federalists use manipulation Most Americans prefer Articles

13 Ratification Anti-Federalists feared centralized power Wanted national bill of rights Believed republicanism could work only in small areas Federalists answered with Federalist Papers Federalists agreed to Bill of Rights to gain approval of Constitution Bill of Rights ratified in 1791

14 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Map 10:1 – Western Land Claims c. 1780

15 Discussion Questions What was life like in the early United States under the Articles of Confederation? Why were the Articles replaced? How did the Northwest Ordinances of 1784 and 1787 affect early American society? What was the purpose of these ordinances? Examine the plans put forth at the Constitutional Convention. What was the compromise that was finally agreed upon? Explain the three branches of government in the Constitution and the need for checks and balances between them? Explain the arguments for and against the Constitution.

Download ppt "Chapter 10 Inventing a Country: American Constitutions 1781–1789."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google