Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

La protezione del Mare Mediterraneo dall ’ inquinamento Milano, 6 marzo 2012 - Fondation Prince Albert II de Monaco Water usage conflicts in the Mediterranean.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "La protezione del Mare Mediterraneo dall ’ inquinamento Milano, 6 marzo 2012 - Fondation Prince Albert II de Monaco Water usage conflicts in the Mediterranean."— Presentation transcript:

1 La protezione del Mare Mediterraneo dall ’ inquinamento Milano, 6 marzo Fondation Prince Albert II de Monaco Water usage conflicts in the Mediterranean basin GLM Governing the Large Metropolis Sciences Po

2 Outline of the main research questions A new analysis of water conflicts, based on governance What elements for an analysis? Take into account the specificities of the territory, Make an assessment of the existing infrastructures, Identify relevant actors, Identify roots of conflict and its evolution (dynamic process)

3 Analytical framework and 6 case studies Inca-Sa-Pobla, Mayorca, Baleares Sebou basin, Marocco Litani basin, Lebanon Sohag Governorate, Egypt Sfax, Tunisia Toulon Bay, France Report based on previous studies by University of Nice students, Sciences Po STU students ( ) and Sciences Po GLM students (2012)

4 Water conflicts in the Mediterranean region: what is at stake? an unequal repartition of the water resource, at the international level as well as at the local level a demographic pressure and the climate change foster the water deprivation suffered by the region water conflicts: usually local many actors involved, public and private

5 Water conflicts in the Mediterranean region: what is at stake? Inequalities in the distribution of water: North vs. South – South is disadvantaged (precipitation in Albania 1485 mm/year, 51 mm/year in Egypt) Shortage of water: 50 million inhabitants living with less than 500 m3 of water per year, 30 million does not have access to drinking water Demographic growth  by 2025 there will be 250 M inhabitants in the south living with less than 500 m3 of water per year 5

6 Water conflicts in the Mediterranean region: what is at stake?

7 Definitions for the analysis governance: = not a "best practice" approach but how different actors, public and private, coordinate conflict: not necessarily negative, its acknowledgement can lead to negotiation framework: = the way actors look at the conflict, through a certain point of view If actors don't share the same framework, negotiation becomes impossible Framework is also used as a way to foster legitimacy (institutional, technical, judicial, economic, sociocultural)

8 Water conflict: characteristics and typology water = vital resource scarce in the Mediterranean basin requires technical knowledge and specific infrastructures issue: how to define water as a good? Excludable Non-excludable Rivalrous Ostrom: water is a "common pool resource" Non-rivalrous private goodcommon good clubs goodpublic good

9 Use conflicts Two main types of factors: geophysical and socio- economic Geophysical: quality and quantity of water (shortage and distribution) Socio-economic (demography, social relations, urban sprawl) In the South of the Mediterranean: demographic growth and urban sprawl 9

10 Cont. service-water: water went through a filtering process = private good or club good source-water: water coming from the natural water cycle = private good Water right regulates how the water is shared different legal traditions: latin system, muslim system water use: consumption and use use can be not for consumption (forbid the use of water for example)

11 Types of water usage Source: Sciences Po STU Report p. 21, 2011

12 typology of use conflicts externalities as a source of conflict - impact on water quality - impact on water quantity - upstream/downstream conflict institutional dysfunction- problem of attribution of competencies/bad coordination of actors - incapacity to fulfill one's competencies - lack of legitimity and power contestation of a public decision as a source of conflict - opposition to pricing - no respect of a regulation - priorisation framework as a source of conflict - urban/rural conflict - ideological framework - strategy and development conflict

13 Modes of water use conflicts management and resolution Instruments to solve water use conflicts - legislation - public-private partnership, contract (but efficiency is not guaranteed) State involved in both cases. - Consensus, alternative dispute resolution, participative groups: strong implication of users, state is not involved. difficulty to take preventive measures Still: - sectorial integration: coordination of the different public authorities (vertical and horizontal) - territorial integration: coherence between the administrative boundaries and the limits of the basin -integration of all actors: usually requires the creation of a special entity

14 Water conflicts management Conflict is a dynamic process – it is important to follow its evolution and evaluate the different solutions Need to take into account: actors, instruments, what else one could do differently? Sectoral integration (among ministries such as agricultural, environmental) Territorial integration (natural cycle f water i a cross-boarder issue Integration of max authors: to encourage all actors to participate at all levels of the public policy process 14

15

16 Coalition Building Civil Society Orgs Public agencies Policy Development Bargaining Decision Making Conflict management Implementation Mainstream Agenda Setting Specialist NGOs Frame problems / solutions Evaluation Research (Universities) Monitoring outcomes

17 Action situations: it is possible to manage water conflicts Adapted from Ostrom, 2007; Nagendra, Ostrom, Vitale 2012

18 18 Some very important variables to understand conflict management in the Mediterranean Basin Resource System (RS) Size of urban water treatment plant Scale and type of pre-existing pollution Actors (A) Number of actors Interest groups excluded Leadership Norms of trust, social capital Importance of resource, dependence Governance System (GS) Operational local rules Interactions (I) Env. NGOs networking with government Informal norms for monitoring (civil society commitment) Outcomes (O) Social performance measure (collective action) Ecological performance measure

19 Conclusion A new analysis of water conflicts, based on governance Take into account the specificities of the territory, Make an assessment of the existing infrastructures, Identify relevant actors, Identify roots of conflict and its evolution (dynamic process) Modes of conflict resolution Decide to engage the state or build participatory groups involving users Importance of coordination of actors: create a special entity

20 Next project: Rabat and Istanbul Based on this governance approach, the next project will be focused on 2 case studies: Rabat-Salé and Istanbul (following a study trip to Istanbul) => identify relevant actors => roots of conflicts Stress on urban/rural conflicts Propose concrete actions for conflict resolution and water management


Download ppt "La protezione del Mare Mediterraneo dall ’ inquinamento Milano, 6 marzo 2012 - Fondation Prince Albert II de Monaco Water usage conflicts in the Mediterranean."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google