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Adolf Hitler: What Happens When an Artist Becomes a Dictator Macey Martinez.

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Presentation on theme: "Adolf Hitler: What Happens When an Artist Becomes a Dictator Macey Martinez."— Presentation transcript:

1 Adolf Hitler: What Happens When an Artist Becomes a Dictator Macey Martinez

2 But, I wanted to be an Artist! Moves to Vienna in 1907 to study art. Moves to Vienna in 1907 to study art claims to have made over 1,000 paintings and drawings claims to have made over 1,000 paintings and drawings joins the military and the rest is history! 1914 joins the military and the rest is history!

3 Election day 1933 The Goal: To create a pure Germanic culture by doing away with “degenerate” art. The Goal: To create a pure Germanic culture by doing away with “degenerate” art. Strategy: To confiscate all state- owned cultural property. Strategy: To confiscate all state- owned cultural property.

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5 Art Approved by the Fuehrer True art as defined by Hitler was linked with the country life, with health, and with the Aryan race. True art as defined by Hitler was linked with the country life, with health, and with the Aryan race. Modern art had no place in the Third Reich Modern art had no place in the Third Reich

6 National Socialism The idea of Volk The idea of Volk (simple life Folkdom) (simple life Folkdom) Glorification of the German people Glorification of the German people Images of laborers, glorification of soldiers, portrays healthy, happy, Germanic peoples. Images of laborers, glorification of soldiers, portrays healthy, happy, Germanic peoples.

7 Inspired by Greco – Roman nudes Inspired by Greco – Roman nudes Pristine, heroic, figures Pristine, heroic, figures Images that showed Germany was peaceful, or drawn into struggle to defend itself Images that showed Germany was peaceful, or drawn into struggle to defend itself

8 The Great German Art Exhibition Commissioned in 1933, completed in Commissioned in 1933, completed in works, of Nazi approved style and subject 600 works, of Nazi approved style and subject Hitler’s dream of new German art Hitler’s dream of new German art

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10 Degenerate Art eXhibit 1937, Munich, Hitler establishes the Degenerate Art Show 1937, Munich, Hitler establishes the Degenerate Art Show Non Approved Art was confiscated Non Approved Art was confiscated Nazis took full control of artist and art production Nazis took full control of artist and art production Many if not all artist fled Germany at this time. Many if not all artist fled Germany at this time.

11 “ As for the degenerate artist, I forbid them to force their so called experiences upon the public. If artists do see fields blue they are deranged, and should go to an asylum. If they only pretend to see them blue, they are criminals and should go to prison.” “ As for the degenerate artist, I forbid them to force their so called experiences upon the public. If artists do see fields blue they are deranged, and should go to an asylum. If they only pretend to see them blue, they are criminals and should go to prison.” -Adolf Hitler -Adolf Hitler

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13 Is that a smile on your face, or are you just happy to see some art?

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15 Piet Mondrian Composition with Blue 1926 Edvard Munch The Sick Child 1907

16 Marc Chagall, Purim Max Beckman Carnival 1920

17 Paul KleeThe Kettledrum Organ (Die Paukenorgel) 1930

18 Ernst Kirchner, artillerymen 1915

19 Karl Schmidt-Rottluff Woman with a Bag, 1915

20 Mr. Karl Schmidt-Rottluff Berlin W. 30 Bamberger St. 19 In connection with the task, entrusted to me by the Fuehrer, of eradicating the works of degenerate art from our museums, no fewer than 608 paintings of yours had to be seized. A number of these paintings were displayed at the exhibits of Degenerate Art in Munich, Dortmund, and Berlin. This fact could leave no doubt in your mind that your paintings did not contribute to the advancement of German culture in its responsibility toward people and nation. Although you must also have been aware of the policy-setting speech of the Fuehrer at the opening of the Great German Art Exhibit in Munich, the recent paintings of yours which you have now submitted to us indicate that even at this date, you are still far removed from the cultural foundations of the National Socialist state. On the basis of these facts, I am unable to grant that you possess the necessary reliability for belonging to my Chamber. On the basis of Paragraph 10 of the first executive Order implementing the Law Concerning the National Chambers of Culture of November 1, 1933 (Official Gazette, I, 797) I hereby expel you from the National Chamber of Fine Arts and forbid you, effective immediately, any activity - professional or amateur - in the field of graphic arts. MEMBERSHIP BOOK NO. M 756 issued in your name is no longer valid, and you are requested to send it back to me by return mail. s. ZIEGLER.

21 These Movements were banned! Dada Dada Cubism Cubism Expressionism Expressionism Fauvism Fauvism Impressionism Impressionism Surrealism Surrealism

22 Hitler confiscates all art works not approved by himself Nazis confiscated more than 17,000 works of art Nazis confiscated more than 17,000 works of art Most were sold to Art dealer to fund war efforts Most were sold to Art dealer to fund war efforts Others were destroyed Others were destroyed

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24 1945 President Eisenhower looking at recovered artworks

25 Soldiers viewing a recovered Manet

26 What did all this mean for Art Education? Art was taught to develop individual talent Art was taught to develop individual talent The art of children depicted conformity The art of children depicted conformity Children’s drawing were community based, not personal experience Children’s drawing were community based, not personal experience Ready made formulas for teaching drawing. Ready made formulas for teaching drawing.

27 Art Education Cont. Art teachers attempted to push students into identical stages of development Art teachers attempted to push students into identical stages of development The Nazi art teacher was a “drill sargent on a march to realism” The Nazi art teacher was a “drill sargent on a march to realism”

28 So, No matter how hard he tried

29 he never succeeded in replacing the art he condemned.

30 Sources A teacher’s guide to the Holocaust Art under National Socialism Crime library Art under a dictator ship Germany , notes, Howard Hull.


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