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Slide No 1 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 EUROÜLIKOOL - EUROUNIVERSITY FACULTY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS CONFRONTATION WITHING THE ISLAMIC WORLD And with the West Class by Bruce Jones
Slide No 2 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 RADICAL ISLAMIST GROUPS
Slide No 3 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Development of Radical Middle East Groups 1950s Gen Arif Iraq Arab Nationalist NasserEgypt Arab Nationalist + Revolutionary Warfare? AssadSyria Arab Nationalist 1960sFLNAlgeria Arab Nationalist + Revolutionary Warfare? FlossyAden Arab Nationalist NLFYemen Arab Nationalist + Revolutionary Warfare? 1970s PLO, PFLP, Abu Nidal Palestine, Middle East Anti-Zionist + Revolutionary Warfare 1980sAmal Palestine, Middle East Anti-Zionist + Islamist MujahadinAfghanistan Anti-Soviet + Islamic > Transition? 1990sGIAAlgeriaIslamist al-QaedaAfghanistanIslamist TalibanAfghanistanIslamist Hezbollah, Islamic Jihad Lebanon, Palestine Islamist Hammas, al-Aqsa Martyrs Lebanon, Palestine Islamist
Slide No 4 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Radical Islamist Groups ▪ Fundamentalists ▪ Islamists ▪ Jihadis ▪ Qutbees ▪ Revivalists ▪ Moslem Brotherhood ▪ Salafis ▪ Wahhabis ▪ Takfiris
Slide No 5 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Radical Islamist Groups Revivalists Islamists Wahhabis Jihadis MoslemBrotherhood Jihadis Fundamentalists Islamists Takfiris Qutbees Salafis SunniShi’ia
Slide No 6 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Radical Islamist Groups Funda- mentalists RevivalistsIslamistsWahhabisSalafisMoslem B ’ hood QutbeesTakfririsJihadis
Slide No 7 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Fundamentalists ▪ Religious conservatives extolling Islam based exclusively on literal and traditional interpretations of the Qur ’ an, which they believe to be “ fundamental ” to its practice. Some however can be apolitical ▪ Political “ fundamentalists ” advocate Islamism, i.e. the installation of Islamic states based on Shari ’ ia law ▪ The term is used inaccurately to include those only following traditional Islam rather than promoting Islamism.
Slide No 8 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Islamists ▪ Revolutionary, usually anti-Western political ideology seeking the installation of Islamic states based on fundamentalist religious precepts of legal, economic and social obligations of societies and Shari ’ ia Law
Slide No 9 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Islamic Militants ▪ A broad term denoting the ideologies of Moslem groups associated with religious or political violence, including nationalist and ethnic as well as Islamist
Slide No 10 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Jihadis ▪ Generally used inaccurately to denote only “ Holy War." The term means “ utmost effort to strive and struggle ▪ There are two forms. The “ greater ” Jihad, the inward struggle of one ’ s soul and “ lesser ” Jihad, which relates to external elements. There are several components ▪ Many believe that “ non-violent Jihad ” is the "greater ” Jihad and “ violent Jihad ” is the "lesser ” Jihad ▪ Recently low key, social applications have emerged such as “ civil ” Jihad
Slide No 11 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Revivalists ▪ Many scholars believe early Shari ’ ia Law was more flexible than present interpretation, that traditional jurists should relinquish their status and a new, modern formula be devised ▪ This can be achieved through two means: Revival of “ Ijtihad ” or independent consideration of text and law by scholars to remove misinterpretation, restore accuracy and re-direct Islam towards the centre of modern thought ▪ By the “ Islamisation of Knowledge, ” synthesizing of Islamic ethics with modern science, technology and economics to provide a new consensus, legality and society among Moslems. It would bring about a modern Moslem professional class and the egalitarian concepts of Islamic economics
Slide No 12 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Wahhabis ▪ A strict traditionalist Sunni Islamic movement. The dominant form of Islam in Saudi Arabia. Named after Ibn Abd al Wahhab 1703-1792. Its members rarely acknowledge the title today ▪ It holds the way of the “ rightly guided, pious predecessors ”, i.e. the earliest Moslems ▪ It accepts other commentaries as well as the Qur ’ an. It claims to interpret the words of the prophet directly in legal pronouncement, placing itself at odds with mainstream Sunnism that emphasizes scholarly consideration
Slide No 13 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Wahhabis ▪ Wahhabis forbid innovations, deviances and idolatries such as the invocation of any prophet in prayer, veneration of the graves of prophets, photographs of any living being, the celebration of Muhammad's birthday or wearing charms. Many grow beards and wear traditional dress ▪ The conquest in 1924 of Mecca and Medina by the al-Saud family and their control of the Hajj and oil revenue since 1938 have enabled the ascendancy of Sunnism and Wahhabism and funding of schools, newspapers and organizations in much of the Moslem world
Slide No 14 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Salafis ▪ A contemporary Sunni movement following “ pure Islam ” as practiced by the first three generations of Muslims following exclusively traditional practices and literal interpretation ▪ They generally oppose Sufism and Shi ’ ism and forbid practices such as the veneration of the graves of prophets, photographs of any living being and the celebration of Muhammad's birthday. Sometimes also called Wahhabism although they themselves now resent this term ▪ Some Salafis believe that the Wahhabism propounded by Saudi Arabia has strayed and distance themselves from it. Others believe that most Moslem countries have strayed and the only answer is violent Jihad ▪ These Salafis are referred to as Islamists, Jihadis, or Qutbees
Slide No 15 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Muslim Brotherhood ▪ The Muslim Brotherhood is a highly influential worldwide Islamist religious and political movement. Founded and still centred in Egypt in 1928, it has influence and followers in Syria, Jordan, Levant, wider diaspora and the West ▪ It advocates reform, democracy and social justice, was anti-colonial and opposes Western military and economic domination. Its belief is "God is our objective, the Quran is our Constitution, the Prophet is our leader, struggle is our way, and death for the sake of God is the highest of our aspirations “
Slide No 16 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Muslim Brotherhood ▪ It seeks to install just Islamic Caliphate across Moslem world by peaceful, lawful means, although it views Hammas ’ actions as legitimate. It supports Shari ’ ia Law ▪ Membership has been illegal and at times punishable by death. It had alleged involvement in the 1954 attempted assassination of Nasser and 1981 killing of Anwar Sadat ▪ Two most notable members were Egyptians Muhammad Qutb and his brother the late Sayyid Qutb who wrote the important treatise ‘ Milestones ’.
Slide No 17 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Muslim Brotherhood ▪ From the movement have formed the violent splinter groups Al-Gama ’ a Islamiyya (The Islamic Group) and Al Takfir Wal Hijra (Excommunication and Migration). Bin Laden also had strong links with the Brotherhood at university ▪ Seen by some as source of all modern Jihadi terrorist ideology, it was financed by Saudi Arabia from 1950 to the 1990s
Slide No 18 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Qutbees ▪ Qutbism is the strain of Islamic ideology and activism based on the writings of Sayyid Qutb. It is one of the two main strands of Salafism, the other being Wahhabism ▪ Its main belief is Islam is heading towards pre-Islamic moral ignorance. To be re-conquered, Islam will have initially to use some non-Moslem experts for scientific and other knowledge to regain its destined position, satisfy the needs of the community and attain the “ Islamisation of Knowledge ”
Slide No 19 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Qutbees ▪ In 1953 Sayyid Qutb became an active member of the Egyptian “ Moslem Brotherhood ”, (founded in 1928). His writings became more radical during its persecution by Nasser by whose regime he was executed in 1966 ▪ The term “ Qutbees ” was used by Saudis, in relation to the Brotherhood. Extreme Salafis and Wahhabis consider it a deviant sect and use the term negatively ▪ Bin Laden was raised a Wahhabi and is claimed to have been influenced by the Brotherhood and Qutb, although he has never identified himself with a particular sect
Slide No 20 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Takfiris ▪ Takfiris are an originally Egyptian, violent, Salafist group, founded in the 1960s. They are not bound by religious constraints on wearing a beard, drinking alcohol, or eating pork if it interferes with “ blending in ” to wage Jihad ▪ Allied to Al-Qaeda, it is active in Spain, Algeria and Morocco and so extreme that in 1996 it plotted to assassinate Osama bin Laden ▪ Alleged members: Mohammed Atta, Ayman al-Zawahiri, second-in- command of Al-Qaeda, the Madrid train bombers and Mohammed Bouyeri, assassin of the Dutch film director Theo van Gogh. It was connected with the 1981 assassination of President Anwar Sadat
Slide No 21 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 WHAT MIDDLE EAST AND MOSLEM WORLD DID NOT EXPERIENCE
Slide No 22 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Areas in question ▪ English speaking world - UK, N America, “ Old Commonwealth ” (not Ireland!) ▪ Western Europe ▪ Different way Central and Eastern Europe, also Russia ▪ Even to an extent Japan, India and China
Slide No 23 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 What Middle East and Moslem World did not experience Socio-economic consequences of European World Wars I + II ▪ Industrialisation ▪ Urbanisation ▪ Erosion of old orders e.g. aristocracy, religious observance, deference ▪ Mass casualties ▪ Women in the workforce and workplace ▪ Immigration ▪ Low unemployment ▪ Eventually prosperity – household goods, TVs, cars
Slide No 24 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Women and the Family ▪ Women in workplace, urbanisation, re-housing, some economic independence, effective contraception ▪ Pressure on family and dilution of traditional roles
Slide No 25 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Religious Decline ▪ Leisure time, entertainment, spending money and mobility ▪ Decline in religious attendance, belief and observance and emergence of religious diversity
Slide No 26 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 National and Ethnic Identity ▪ Mass immigration of third world workforce ▪ Multiculturalism and eventual dilution of national identity
Slide No 27 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Social Values ▪ Prosperity, welfare state, social security ▪ Benefit dependency culture and lack of consequences
Slide No 28 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Western Culture ▪ Development of popular democracy, erosion of old orders, greater liberty, freedom and prosperity ▪ Film, music, radio, TV, magazines, events, demos, videos ▪ Post Modern culture, lifestyle, attitudes, outlook, opulence ▪ Music, videos, DVDs – Moslem or Third World Perspective
Slide No 29 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 What Middle East and Moslem World do not have ▪ Teen pregnancy ▪ Single parent families ▪ Abortion ▪ Divorce ▪ Co-habiting and “ partners ” ▪ Gay rights and marriage ▪ Youth power, cults and violence ▪ Widespread use and acceptance of cheap recreational drugs ▪ Benefit dependent culture
Slide No 30 © Bruce Jones Oct 2007 Moslem and Arab Societies ▪ Little changed family structure ▪ Male dominance ▪ Preponderance of religious power and belief ▪ Strong national - ethnic identities ▪ More rigid, conservative, less diverse societies ▪ Disjoint between rulers and populations ▪ Often artificial oil-based economies
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