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Gerunds 1. As Nouns for Activities: smoking, reading, swimming E.g. I like reading and swimming. 2. After Prepositions: on, at, in, E.g. I’m good at teaching.

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Presentation on theme: "Gerunds 1. As Nouns for Activities: smoking, reading, swimming E.g. I like reading and swimming. 2. After Prepositions: on, at, in, E.g. I’m good at teaching."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Gerunds 1. As Nouns for Activities: smoking, reading, swimming E.g. I like reading and swimming. 2. After Prepositions: on, at, in, E.g. I’m good at teaching but my son is not interested in doing homework.

3 How about TO : I like to swim this Sunday. I am used to swimming on Sundays. Other e.g.s Looking forward to + ing e.g. I’m looking forward to seeing you. Accustomed to + ing

4 3. After Expressions: a) It/there is no use/good e.g. The last bus has gone. It is no use waiting at the bus stop now. b) Is there any sense/use (Questions) e.g. Is there any sense crying over split milk?

5 c) Be worth (Be = is/am/are/was/were etc.) e.g. It is worth studying hard. You will get good results in return. d) Can’t help/can’t stand e.g. After knowing the bad news, she can’t help crying. BUT: She can’t help but cry (bare inf.)

6 Bare Infinitives 1. After Modal Verbs: Must/may/might/can/could/should/will/ would/shall/have to/ought to e.g. You ought to study hard if you want to get good results in exams.

7 2. After Make/let e.g. I’ve failed today’s test and my teacher made me take my re-test tomorrow after school. e.g. My mother lets me come home later tonight.

8 3. After would rather I’m very tired, so I would rather go home to have a sleep now than to go to the concert. 4. After had better You had better study hard now if you really want to go to university.

9 5. After Verbs of Perceptions: (Infinitive or Gerund) See/watch/observe e.g. I saw her cross the road. I saw her crossing the road. Hear/listen e.g. I heard somebody shout/shouting outside

10 Smell e.g. I could smell something burn/burning Feel/notice e.g. I felt/noticed somebody enter/entering the house

11 Differences between Gerund and Infinitive Uses in the above Verb+Bare Infinitive  normal situations Verb+-ing  emphasise the on-going of the action seen, heard etc. e.g. I saw her cross the road and turned left Vs. I saw her crossing the road when the car knocked her down.

12 Ger-In Cases 1. Stop Stop + -ing  Stop what one is doing e.g. The driver stopped repairing the car and drove away. Stop + To-inf.  stop what one is doing to do to do the thing in the infinitive e.g. The driver stopped to examine the car.

13 2. Try Try +-ing  doing something to see what will happen e.g. She tried sending him chocolates but he did not respond. Try + To-Infinitive  trying to do something difficult, may not be successful e.g. She tried to open the can but failed.

14 3. Remember/forget/regret Remember/forget/regret+-ing  for PAST actions & events e.g. I regret being too kind to my students. They do not pay attention to my lesson now. e.g. I remember closing all the doors and windows before I left home yesterday.

15 Remember/forget/regret + To-infinitive  What one has to do (now or in future) e.g. I’ll remember to return the books to the library tomorrow. e.g. I regret to inform you that you are not accepted by our company.

16 4. Like/love/hate/prefer Like/love/hate/prefer+-ing  General Case, something true for the past time long before now e.g. I like swimming and cycling Like/love/hate/prefer+ To-inf.  refers to a particular/special occasion e.g. I usually go cycling on Sundays but for this Sunday, I’d like to play rugby.

17 5. Allow/advise/forbid/permit Allow/advise/forbid/permit + -ing  followed by verbs (no personal objects) e.g. We don’t allow smoking here. Like/love/hate/prefer + To-inf.  followed by persons (nouns), not verbs e.g. We don’t allow people (personal object) to smoke here.

18 6. Need/require/want/deserve Like/love/hate/prefer + -ing  Passive meaning e.g. My hair needs cutting = My hair needs to be cut by the hair-stylist (my hair can’t cut itself) e.g. The flowers need watering = The flowers need to be watered by the gardeners


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