Presentation on theme: "Gerunds 1. As Nouns for Activities: smoking, reading, swimming E.g. I like reading and swimming. 2. After Prepositions: on, at, in, E.g. I’m good at teaching."— Presentation transcript:
Gerunds 1. As Nouns for Activities: smoking, reading, swimming E.g. I like reading and swimming. 2. After Prepositions: on, at, in, E.g. I’m good at teaching but my son is not interested in doing homework.
How about TO : I like to swim this Sunday. I am used to swimming on Sundays. Other e.g.s Looking forward to + ing e.g. I’m looking forward to seeing you. Accustomed to + ing
3. After Expressions: a) It/there is no use/good e.g. The last bus has gone. It is no use waiting at the bus stop now. b) Is there any sense/use (Questions) e.g. Is there any sense crying over split milk?
c) Be worth (Be = is/am/are/was/were etc.) e.g. It is worth studying hard. You will get good results in return. d) Can’t help/can’t stand e.g. After knowing the bad news, she can’t help crying. BUT: She can’t help but cry (bare inf.)
Bare Infinitives 1. After Modal Verbs: Must/may/might/can/could/should/will/ would/shall/have to/ought to e.g. You ought to study hard if you want to get good results in exams.
2. After Make/let e.g. I’ve failed today’s test and my teacher made me take my re-test tomorrow after school. e.g. My mother lets me come home later tonight.
3. After would rather I’m very tired, so I would rather go home to have a sleep now than to go to the concert. 4. After had better You had better study hard now if you really want to go to university.
5. After Verbs of Perceptions: (Infinitive or Gerund) See/watch/observe e.g. I saw her cross the road. I saw her crossing the road. Hear/listen e.g. I heard somebody shout/shouting outside
Smell e.g. I could smell something burn/burning Feel/notice e.g. I felt/noticed somebody enter/entering the house
Differences between Gerund and Infinitive Uses in the above Verb+Bare Infinitive normal situations Verb+-ing emphasise the on-going of the action seen, heard etc. e.g. I saw her cross the road and turned left Vs. I saw her crossing the road when the car knocked her down.
Ger-In Cases 1. Stop Stop + -ing Stop what one is doing e.g. The driver stopped repairing the car and drove away. Stop + To-inf. stop what one is doing to do to do the thing in the infinitive e.g. The driver stopped to examine the car.
2. Try Try +-ing doing something to see what will happen e.g. She tried sending him chocolates but he did not respond. Try + To-Infinitive trying to do something difficult, may not be successful e.g. She tried to open the can but failed.
3. Remember/forget/regret Remember/forget/regret+-ing for PAST actions & events e.g. I regret being too kind to my students. They do not pay attention to my lesson now. e.g. I remember closing all the doors and windows before I left home yesterday.
Remember/forget/regret + To-infinitive What one has to do (now or in future) e.g. I’ll remember to return the books to the library tomorrow. e.g. I regret to inform you that you are not accepted by our company.
4. Like/love/hate/prefer Like/love/hate/prefer+-ing General Case, something true for the past time long before now e.g. I like swimming and cycling Like/love/hate/prefer+ To-inf. refers to a particular/special occasion e.g. I usually go cycling on Sundays but for this Sunday, I’d like to play rugby.
5. Allow/advise/forbid/permit Allow/advise/forbid/permit + -ing followed by verbs (no personal objects) e.g. We don’t allow smoking here. Like/love/hate/prefer + To-inf. followed by persons (nouns), not verbs e.g. We don’t allow people (personal object) to smoke here.
6. Need/require/want/deserve Like/love/hate/prefer + -ing Passive meaning e.g. My hair needs cutting = My hair needs to be cut by the hair-stylist (my hair can’t cut itself) e.g. The flowers need watering = The flowers need to be watered by the gardeners