Presentation on theme: "EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH Created by: Armayani Idrus Ria Helmaliza Wilda Maysari."— Presentation transcript:
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH Created by: Armayani Idrus Ria Helmaliza Wilda Maysari
DEFINISI Penelitian Eksperimen adalah: sebuah penelitian yang bertujuan untuk menyelediki hubungan sebab akibat dengan cara membandingkan kelompok eksperimen dan kelompok kontrol.
A DA DUA KELAS DALAM PENELITIAN EKSPERIMEN : 1. Kelas Eksperimen (Experiment Class) - Mendapatkan treatment (perlakuan) 2. Kelas Kontrol (Control Class): - Tidak mendapat treatment - Sebagai pembanding
KARAKTERISTIK: 1. Kontrol 2. Manipulasi variabel independen 3. Observasi
JENIS PENELITIAN EKSPERIMEN 1. True Experimental (murni) 2. Quasi Experimental (semu) 3. Single Subject
1. EKSPERIMEN MURNI (TRUE EXPERIMENTAL) Experiment class Control class Random
1. R ANDOMIZED POSTTEST ONLY CONTROL DESIGN Random Assignment Groups Intervention Posttest E X O R C O
2. R ANDOMIZED PRETEST POSTTEST CONTROL DESIGN Random Assignment Groups Pretest Intervention Posttest E O X O R C O O
3. S OLOMON FOUR GROUPS DESIGN Random Assignment Groups Pretest Intervention Posttest E1 O X O C2 O O R E2 X O C2 O
2. EKSPERIMEN SEMU (QUASI EXPERIMENTAL) Experiment class Control class No random
1. N ON - EQUIVALENT POSTTEST ONLY DESIGN Groups Intervention Posttest E X O C O
2. N ON - RANDOMIZED PRETEST POSTTEST CONTROL DESIGN Groups Pretest Intervention Posttest E O X O C O O
SINGLE-SUBJECT DESIGN Is individual behavior recorded before and after an intervention. Menggunakan satu subjek Biasanya dilakukan dalam counseling atau rehabilitas
T YPES OF S INGLE S UBJECCT A-B Design BaselineIntervention (treatment) XXXXXXX OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO o A-B-A Design BaselineInterventionBaseline (treatment) XXXXXXX OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO
NORMALITAS DAN HOMOGENITAS - Uji normalitas berguna untuk mengetahui apakah data yang berasal dari kedua kelas sampel berasal dari populasi yang berdistribusi normal atau tidak. - Uji homogenitas dilakukan untuk mengetahui apakah data dari masing- masing kelompok sampel mempunyai varians yang sama atau berbeda
B EBERAPA TEKNIK UNTUK MENGUJI NORMALITAS DAN HOMOGENITAS DATA : Kertas Peluang Normal Uji Chi-Kuadrat Uji Liliefors Teknik Kolmogorov-Smirnov SPSS
T HE E FFECTIVENESS O F C OOPERATIVE L EARNING TO I NCREASE S TUDENTS ’ M OTIVATION I N L EARNING E NGLISH FOR 2 ND G RADE S TUDENTS OF SMA N EGERI 1 K EBUMEN OF 2007/2008 A CADEMIC Y EAR. Example:
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. B ACKGROUND O F T HE PROBLEM Language is a systematic means of the communication by the use of sounds or conventional symbols. It is the code that we use to express ourselves and communicate to others. It is a system for communicating ideas and feelings using sounds, gesture, signs or marks English is very important to prepare the learners of English as an Foreign Language can be competitive as the human resource in their life.... It is important to think about motivation as the essence of language teaching because of the stark realities of learning English.
The condition, which happens in class, is the students feel afraid of English as one of their subject. It is because they feel that English is very difficult to learn. So that, most students do not have enough motivation to learn……….. Because of these adverse conditions, the students have to have extraordinary motivation in order to succeed in learning English. In teaching learning process, students’ motivation is very essential. Students’ motivation in learning English can be a good modal for enhancing the teacher’s objectives in their class.
B. I DENTIFICATION O F THE P ROBLEM According to Prayitno (1989: 94) there are some aspects on teaching which can influence students’ learning motivation. They are teacher, student, material, media, method, and evaluation. Based on statement above, method brings also the significant influence in the success of the process of teaching learning, especially in terms of improving students’ motivation in the class. Furthermore, the teacher in achieving class objectives……………….
1. Competitive Learning exists when one student goal is achieved; all other students fail to reach the goal. (Johnson & Johnson, 1991). 2. Individualistic Learning exists when the learning or achievement of one students is independent and separate from…. 3. Collaborative Learning takes place when student…. 4. Cooperative Learning occurs when students work collaboratively…..
C. L IMITATION O F T HE R ESEARCH The problem of this study is limited to the effectiveness of cooperative learning to increase students’ motivation in learning English for 2 nd grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Kebumen of 2007/2008 Academic Year.
D. F ORMULATION O F T HE P ROBLEM Is there any significant difference between learning motivation of students who are taught using cooperative learning and those who are taught without it?
E. O BJECTIVES O F T HE R ESEARCH To find out whether there is any significant difference between learning motivation of students who are taught by applying Cooperative Learning and those who are taught without it.
F. S IGNIFICANCE O F T HE R ESEACRH 1).For the teacher, it can be useful information about the effectiveness……… 2).The school can see how far Cooperative Learning influences………. 3).The significance for English Education Department of Yogyakarta State University is enriching and enlarging………….
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED THEORIES A. L ITERATURE REVIEW 1. Motivation a. Definition of Motivation is internal and external factors...(Business Dictionary, 2002). Motivation is the internal condition that activates behavior and gives it direction; energizes and directs goal- oriented behavior (Wikipedia). b. Types of motivation
2. Cooperative Learning a. Definition of Cooperative Learning Cooperative Learning is defined as a system of concrete teaching and ….(Kagan, 1995). Richards, Platt & Platt (1992) stated that cooperative learning is a system of teaching and learning techniques in which….. b. The elements of cooperative learning There are five essential elements of cooperative learning: 1. Positive interdependence. It is…. 2. Individual accountability. It is…. c. Implementing Cooperative Learning in teaching English Cooperative Learning is an effective teaching method in foreign language…… (Krashen, 1985; Kagan, 1995)
B. H YPOTHESIS Based on the above stated theory, the hypothesis can be formulated as follows: There is a significant difference between motivation of students who are taught using Cooperative Learning and those who are taught without it.
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD A. R ESEARCH T YPE This research is a quantitative research. This study can be classified into a quasi-experimental study. The design used is an in tack group pretest- posttest design that involves a group of students who belong to the experimental group and the one belong to control group. In this study, the treatment, which is given, is applying cooperative learning in teaching learning process.
B. V ARIABLES O F T HE S TUDY The independent variable of this study is cooperative learning. X, represents this variable. The dependent variable is students’ motivation, which is represented by Y. The design of the research can be shown in this table: GROUPINDEPENDENTDEPENDENT ExperimentXY ControlXY
C. R ESEARCH P OPULATION AND DESIGN The population on this study is two classes of the 2 nd grade students of SMA Negeri 1 Kebumen of Academic Year. NOCLASS CLASSIFICATION (GROUP) NUMBER OF STUDENTS 1A140 students 2A240 students
The selection group for the experiment and non-experiment (control group) will use coin toss. The experiment group will be given cooperative learning activities and no treatment for the second group. Here is the distribution of treatment in the research. GROUPCLASSTREATMENTNUMBER OF STUDENTS Experiment2ACooperative Learning 40 Control2B-40
D. R ESEARCH I NSTRUMENT 1. Instrument of the research This study will use questionnaire as the instrument of the research to gain data to see the significant result of students’ motivation. 2. Validity of the instrument To see the validity of the instrument, the researcher uses Product Moment Correlation formula. 3. Reliability of the instrument The researcher uses Alpha Formula to check the reliability of the instrument.
E. D ATA C OLLECTING T ECHNIQUE Data collection in this study uses the motivational questionnaire in order to understand the students’ motivation toward learning English before and after the treatment, a questionnaire containing some items were developed by the researcher.
F. D ATA A NALYSIS T ECHNIQUE The technique of data analysis is examining the effects of the results of the motivational questionnaire. As for the analysis of the motivational questionnaires, each student’s responses to the some items in the questionnaire are scored with the help of the computer software of SPSS. The statistical results of the questionnaire are compared for experiment and control group analysis.