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THE INTER-TESTAMENTAL PERIOD 400 Years of History in Ten Minutes.

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1 THE INTER-TESTAMENTAL PERIOD 400 Years of History in Ten Minutes

2 LIFE UNDER THE GREEKS Alexander the Great dies in 323 BC His empire is divided among his general Israel is caught between  Ptolemy in the south (Egypt)  Seleucids in the north (Syria) Greek culture has powerful influence, leading to translation of OT into Greek  The Septuagint (LXX)

3 LIFE UNDER THE GREEKS 198 BC, the Seleucids defeated the Ptolemies and gained control of Judah, but not Egypt. The Seleucids were determined to “civilize” the people of Judah.

4 ANITIOCHUS IV 175 B. C., Antiochus IV, Epiphanies (the illustrious one). The Jews called him “Epimanes” (the madman). Antiochus looked upon orthodox Judaism as an obstacle to the unification of his empire.

5 ANITIOCHUS IV He looked upon the office of high priest as a political office.  A Benjaminite named Melanus pays money to become High Priest.  The orthodox Jews were infuriated. Antiochus attacks Egypt.  Almost won, but was defeated by the Romans.

6 ANITIOCHUS IV Antiochus takes his anger out on Israel.  He sent his army to attack the orthodox Jews on the Sabbath.  He decreed that Greek deities were to be worshipped.  He put a statue of Zeus in the Temple and sacrificed a pig on the altar.  He held drunken orgies to the god Bacchus and forced attendance.

7 ANITIOCHUS IV Antiochus takes his anger out on Israel.  He forbid the Jews to practice circumcision on the threat of death.  The Sabbath was forbidden.  The observance of Jewish feasts was forbidden.  Copies of the Scriptures were burned.

8 THE MACCABEES 165 BC, An aged priest, named Mattathias, was commanded to offer a sacrifice to Zeus at the town of Modin. He refused and killed the next man who tried. Together with his five sons, he destroyed the altar and ran for the hills.

9 THE MACCABEES For the next few years, they fought a guerrilla war against the Seleucids. After having several killed on the Sabbath, when they would not fight, Mattathias decreed that fighting in self-defense on the Sabbath was allowed.

10 JUDAH THE MACCABEE (the Hammer) He continued the raids and guerrilla warfare. Antiochus had battles in other parts of his kingdom and couldn’t focus on them.

11 JUDAH THE MACCABEE (the Hammer) Eventually, the Maccabees took Jerusalem, entered the Temple and removed all signs of paganism that they found there.  They tore down the altar to Zeus and built a new altar to the Lord.  One day of oil burned for eight.  This is the Festival of Lights or “Hanukkah.”

12 JUDAH THE MACCABEE (the Hammer) Judah’s victory was short-lived.  Antiochus sent his army against him, promising religious freedom if they surrendered.  The people chose to surrender and Judah ran away.  He did not stop fighting, however, and died in battle.

13 JONATHAN, JUDAH’S BROTHER Won by diplomacy. Jonathan sought to become high priest, even though he was not of the right lineage. The Syrians later murdered him.

14 SIMON, ANOTHER BROTHER Became both military commander and high priest. Expelled the Syrians from the land. The offices of priest, field commander, and ruler were all given to him by the people and made hereditary. Began the Hasomanean dynasty.

15 THE HASOMANEAN DYNASTY The parties of the Pharisees and the Sadducees began After about 75 years, the Hasomeaneans fell to fighting each other. The Roman general, Pompey, offered to mediate.  He conquered the land and ended the arguments.  In 63 BC, Israel came under Roman domination.

16 THE ROMANS Jews generally fared well; Romans gave a lot of independence Still, longed for freedom Herod the Great  Began ruling in 37 BC  Rebuilt several cities and six fortresses  In 20 BC, began building Temple; finished in 68 AD

17 THE NEW TESTAMENT ENVIRONMENT

18 GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Genuine belief in the gods and goddesses of Greece and Rome had given way to a general agnosticism. Growth in superstition and astrology

19 GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Philosophies Platonism  Taught that true reality is not found in the objects of sense, but in the idea or form which lies behind each object.  By grasping and participating in the eternal forms, the soul is lifted and attains true well-being.  The soul’s real home is the world beyond the senses.  The body is a prison for the soul.  This release takes place at death.

20 GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Philosophies Cynics  Believed “simple pleasures are the best” and taught an extreme frugality.  Salvation lies in returning to nature.  Cynics took their beliefs to the people.  Cynics’ style called the “diatribe” which consisted of questions and answers.

21 GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Philosophies Epicureans  Rejected Plato  How you feel should be the standard of truth.  Wisdom consists in the pursuit of happiness and enjoying life, but not to excess.  There is no afterlife, so you best enjoy life now while you can.  The gods, if they do exist, have nothing to do with us.  At death, the body dissolves.  This tended to bring about atheism and self- indulgence.

22 GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Philosophies Stoics  Encouraged the development of a moral fiber.  Divine Reason pervades the universe and it is our duty to live in accord with Reason.  Ethical living was very important to the Stoics.  Interpreted the Roman myths allegorically.  The soul is the divine spark of Reason trapped within the human body.  We have the ability to rise above our circumstances and face them with dignity.

23 GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Mystery Religions Most of these started in the east and were brought to Rome later. Believed everyone worshiped the same god or gods, just used different names. They are called “mystery religions” because the members were not supposed to tell non- members what was going on. Generally, anyone could join.

24 GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Mystery Religions Eleusians  Founded at the Eleusis a small town near Athens.  Based on the myth of Persephone and Pluto.  As she was searching for Persephone, Demeter came to Eleusis.  She was so well treated by the people that she initiated the king into the sacred mysteries.  The worshippers would re-enact the mythic story, thus brining the people into the reality of the tale.

25 GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Mystery Religions Mithraism  We have more information on this group than just about any other cult.  Very popular among the military.  Restricted to men.

26 GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Mystery Religions Mithraism  In the worship area, there was a statue of Mithra slaying a bull.  His left knee is astride the bull, which is forced to its knees.  His left hand pulls back the nose of the bull and the right hand plunges in a dagger.  From the wound comes three stalks of grain.  The picture is the light of Mithras in victory over the wild life of the bull.

27 GRECO-ROMAN WORLD Mystery Religions Mithraism  Ethics were very important for this group.  There were seven degrees of membership, with costumes and head pieces for each level.  The final level was a baptism in the blood of a bull which was supposed to give eternal life.

28 JUDAISM AND ITS DIVISIONS Synagogues  “Synagogue” means “meeting place”.  Not sure when they began, probably during the Babylonian Captivity.  The synagogues were places for the reading of Scripture and prayer.

29 JUDAISM AND ITS DIVISIONS Synagogues  There was a synagogue in virtually every village in Israel  One rule for the establishment of a synagogue: there had to be ten men.  Men and women sat in different sections of the building.  The “God-fearers” stood along the back wall.

30 THE TEMPLE

31

32

33 VARIOUS GROUPS AND HOPES

34 JEWISH MESSIANIC EXPECTATIONS

35 The Spirit of God would return to-the covenant land. God would send the Messiah to free His covenant people and the covenant land from the Romans  Of Davidic line  Man, not divine, but empowered by God's Spirit sad kept righteous  He would be righteous and just in His rule, serving as God's Messianic agent.

36 JEWISH MESSIANIC EXPECTATIONS The Messiah's victory would be marked by Judgment  Non-Jews and all wicked Jews destroyed --Tax- collectors, prostitutes, other public sinners  The covenant people would be set free and empowered to live totally as God’s people.

37 JEWISH MESSIANIC EXPECTATIONS An age of "heaven on earth"  Imagery of the year of Jubilee  An abundance of food with little work and toil  No more sorrow, sickness and death  No more oppression ant unrighteousness  Non-Jews would, sometime in the future, stream to Jerusalem to become part of the covenant people.  The coming of a "new heaven and a new earth"

38 THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM Q AND SOURCE THEORY OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES

39 THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM What is the relationship among the three Synoptic Gospels?  The Synoptic Gospels are Matthew, Mark and Luke A historical question, does not necessarily impinge upon authorship and inspiration.

40 THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM That there is a relationship is obvious  The general scheme of the three Gospels is the same.  Not only do Jesus’ words match, but also the narrative events.

41 THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM  Where there is a difference  Matthew and Mark agree the most often.  Sometimes Luke and Mark agree.  Rarely, Matthew and Luke agree.

42 THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM  There are passages that Matthew and Luke have that Mark does not.  Some stuff in Matthew and Luke is similar, but not identical.  Each Gospel has its own material.

43 THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM What is the relationship? St. Augustine  Matthew wrote first.  Luke used Matthew.  Mark wrote a Reader’s Digest version of them.

44 THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM Early Church  Matthew wrote first.  Mark wrote his Gospel independently, using Peter as his source.  Luke used Matthew to write his Gospel.

45 THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM Current Scholarship  Mark was the first Gospel written.  Matthew and Luke used Mark and an unknown source called “Q.”  From the German Quelle meaning “source.”

46 THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM Why do scholars think that Mark is the first Gospel?  The amount of Mark found in the other Gospels.  Generally, Mark’s order of events used.  Sometimes, Matthew and Mark have a different order than Luke.  Sometimes Luke and Mark differ from Matthew.  But Matthew and Luke never differ from Mark.  Historical candor  Style

47 THE SYNOPTIC PROBLEM Biggest problem with Markan priority  Early church witness states that Matthew was the first Gospel written.  There is no external evidence to back up this claim.  Still, most scholars think this scheme answers more questions that it gives.

48 Q AND SOURCE THEORY Q = Information that is common to Luke and Matthew, but not in Mark  About 250 verses, mostly sayings with very little narrative material s.  Eusebius quotes a man named Papias who wrote early in the second century.  Papias states that Matthew wrote down the “logia” (sayings, oracles) of Jesus in the “Hebrew dialect.”  Many think that this might have been a type of Q document.

49 Q AND SOURCE THEORY  Except for the temptation of Jesus, most of this material is in different locations in each Gospel.  This means one of two things:  Jesus taught the same thing more than once  That one or the other edited the material and put it where he wanted.  Most scholars think Luke has the “original” order.

50 Q AND SOURCE THEORY Q Problems  There is no hard evidence of its existence.  There is absolutely no parallel type of literature in that era.

51 Q AND SOURCE THEORY Q Problems  Q had no passion account.  Scholars have come up with no less that 18 different possibilities of what was in Q.  Some of the stuff in Q strikes me as two different parables or something that Jesus would have taught more than once.

52 Q AND SOURCE THEORY What Do We Do With All This?  This is a historical question and does not necessarily impinge on authorship or inspiration.  We know that Luke, at least, used sources.  A good argument can be made for putting Mark first.  Q is a open question.

53 OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES Form Criticism  Definition: The task of inferring what the oral tradition of Jesus was like before it was written down.

54 OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES Form Critics identify five types of literature Paradigms  A story that ends with an important saying.  Plucking ears on the Sabbath. Tales (Miracle stories)  These have no important sayings and tend to show Jesus as a miracle worker.  The stilling of the storm.

55 OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES Sayings  Not attached to a narrative.  The Sermon on the Mount and the parables. Legends  Poor choice of words.  The idea was an extraordinary story about a holy person.  The infancy narratives.

56 OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES Myths  Another poor choice of words.  Times when Jesus and God interacted.  The transfiguration.

57 OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES Positives of Form Criticism  The Form Critics help bring attention to the preaching and teaching character of the Gospels.

58 OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES Negatives of Form Criticism  Biggest problem: the presuppositions which the critics use.  Began with the belief that the Church either modified or totally made up the words and actions of Jesus.  The Gospels tell us more about the life situation of the early church than they do about Jesus.  They divided the “Jesus of history” from the “Christ of faith.”

59 OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES Negatives of Form Criticism  Biggest problem: the presuppositions which the critics use.  The Gospels have layers: geographical notations, dating, miracles, and doctrinal elements were all added by the later church. Critics argue that we need to strip the layers from Gospels to get to the “real Jesus” and “the real words of Jesus.” This lead to the so-called “search for the historical Jesus.” When the search for Jesus is stripped away, you are left with someone who looks much like you do.

60 OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES Negatives of Form Criticism  The uncertainty of exact classification  Often arbitrary in selection of forms: paradigms, tales, sayings, legends, myths  All interest in the person and life of Christ are ruled out  The "community myth"  Contradicts all we know about primitive communities  Rules out the influence of Christ and of the apostles on the community  The Good News produced the community, not vice versa

61 OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES Negatives of Form Criticism  The folk-lore analogy is dubious  A little more or less than a generation separates Mark from the event  Ignores the memory of men who were eyewitnesses  Neglects the tradition of Jesus' actual words  Makes insufficient allowance for the existence of an authentic tradition of Christ's words, e.g. 1 Cor. 7:10, 12, 25; 15:3 - 11

62 OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES Negatives of Form Criticism  Ignores the way people learned  Memorization—the only way to preserve a statement or text and the Jews were very tenacious about it. The Rabbis spoke tersely and incisively. The avoided wordy talk; they expressed themselves in concise terms. There were poetic devices: alliteration, parable, rhythmic phrases, etc.  Repetition—which would answer why the same stuff shows up in more than one gospel in a different location, Jesus was repeating himself.  Recitation

63 OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES Negatives of Form Criticism  Overstepped the legitimate limits of their method  Went from form, speculative in itself, to content  Over-ruled or ignored literary and historical truths  If the main contention of form criticism were true, then the burning issues of the early church would be reflected in the Gospels, e. g.  The problem of integrating the non-Jew into the Christian community;  Speaking in tongues.

64 OTHER CRITICAL THEORIES Redaction Criticism  Why the material is arranged the way it is  Overall, pretty positive  However, comes from form-critical school with its problems.  Tends to see a theological motive where others might night.

65 FEATURES IN THE LIFE AND MINISTRY OF JESUS

66 THE BIRTH OF JESUS When was Jesus born?  Herod the Great died in 4 BC  There was an imperial census in 8 BC.

67 THE BIRTH OF JESUS The Problem of Quinirius.  Quinirius was governor around 6 AD, which is too late for the birth of Jesus.  There are three possible answers:  Luke is in error here.  Luke has been mistranslated. “First” should be translated “before” “Governor” should be translated “governing”  Luke doesn’t give the whole story. Started under Herod Completed under Quinirius

68 THE BIRTH OF JESUS The Genealogies Two suggestions:  Matthew is highlighting Joseph’s heritage; Luke is highlighting Mary’s.  But both say they are Joseph’s heritage.  If Mary, Jesus would be considered illegtimate.  Joseph is the product of a Levirite marriage.

69 JESUS’ MINISTRY PARABLES  One third of Jesus’ teaching was done in parables.  The parables describe the Kingdom of God in action.  There are 3 kinds of parables:  A simple saying  A comparison  Allegories  A parable has only one main point of comparison

70 JESUS’ MINISTRY MIRACLES  Jesus’ miracles are well-attested to.  Josephus calls Jesus a “doer of wonderful deeds.”  Babylonian Talmud accuses Jesus of sorcery.

71 JESUS’ MINISTRY MIRACLES  Miracles were part of Jesus’ message.  Jesus’ Mission statement: Luke 4.  The Kingdom of God had come to set people free from: Sickness Demons Evils of nature Death  The key to understanding the miracles was faith: realizing that the miracles were the kingdom of God at work.

72 THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION The Last Supper  Did Jesus celebrate the Passover?  Synoptics: Most definitely yes!

73 THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION  Did Jesus celebrate the Passover?  John: Well, maybe not… John 18:28, 19:14 John uses the word “Passover” in a wide sense Passover and the “Feast of the Unleavened Bread Friday was normally called “Preparation Day” meaning “Preparation for the Sabbath.”

74 THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION  Did Jesus celebrate the Passover?  John: Well, maybe not… John 18:28, 19:14 Saying this was “Preparation for the Passover” could mean “Friday in Passover Week.” There were other important meals during Passover week that might be what John is referring to. There is some discussion as to whether or not all the Jews used the same calendar

75 THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION THE LAST SUPPER  The Order of the Meal  First cup of wine (Luke 22:15-18) At this time, Jesus would have spoken the blessing over the wine. The footwashing (John 13:1-20) “One of you will betray me” (Luke 22:22; Matthew 26:23-24) Washing the right hand was followed by preliminary dish. It consisted of herbs that were dipped in sauce.

76 THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION THE LAST SUPPER  The Order of the Meal  First cup of wine (Luke 22:15-18) At this time, Jesus would have spoken the blessing over the wine. Jesus says that the betrayer would be one who dipped his hand into the dish with me. John asks Jesus who the betrayer was. Jesus says it is the person he gives a dipped portion to: Judas.

77 THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION THE LAST SUPPER  The Order of the Meal  First cup of wine (Luke 22:15-18) At this time, Jesus would have spoken the blessing over the wine. Judas leaves. “All of you will leave me.” Matthew 26:31-35; Mark 14:27-31; Luke 22:31-38; John 13:31-38

78 THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION  The Main Part of the Meal After the preliminary dish, the second cup of wine was distributed. The meal was put on the table. The youngest would ask, “Why do we eat this meal?” and the father of the family would respond with the Passover story. This was followed by singing some of the Hallel Psalms (Psalms ). The second cup of wine was then drank and both hands would be washed.

79 THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION  The Third Cup, the Cup o Blessing or Thanksgiving (Eucharist). It was at this point that Jesus instituted the Lord’s Supper.  Finally, after the meal, Jesus had his great discourse in John.

80 THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION PONTIUS PILATE  Pilate served from 26 to 36 AD.  There were three major incidents before the trial of Jesus (RAGS):  Roman Standards  Aqueduct  Golden Shields  When the Jews protested, they basically threatened Pilate.  Tiberius was not well.  Pilate would have faced exile or suicide.

81 THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION Crucifixion  There were two types of crosses: T and Latin cross  The cross beam was carried by the accused; it weighed about 100 lbs.  A superscription given the reason for the crucifixion was either put above the head or around the neck.  A wooden seat was positioned about half way up.  A piece of wood was used to help the body stay on the cross.  Death was caused by suffocation.

82 THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION If Jesus Didn’t Rise, then What happened?  The “stolen body” theory  The “wrong tomb” theory  The “swoon” theory  The “hallucination” theory

83 THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION Evidence in Scripture for the resurrection:  The women  Early church preaching  The Gospels vary in their accounts  The disciples  Paul

84 THE PASSION AND RESURRECTION What did the Resurrection mean?  That Jesus is the Son of God.  That God accepted Jesus’ sacrifice for us.  That we live a new, forgiven life.  That we will rise again.

85 THE FOUR GOSPELS

86 THE GOSPELS The Gospels are not biographies as we would normally understand that term. The purpose of the Gospels is to present Jesus to the readers.

87 MATTHEW Author: Matthew, the apostle  Attested to throughout church history  Best argument against it: Why would rely so heavily on Mark’s Gospel?  This is an assumption.  He could have read Mark’s Gospel and then decided to incorporate it to show apostolic unity.  If Matthew not the author, then you have to show why church tradition is wrong.

88 MATTHEW Place of writing: Somewhere in Palestine Written to Jewish Christians Date of writing: Depends on presuppositions. Probably around as AD.

89 MATTHEW Key Themes  Messianic interest  Jesus is the new Moses  Structure: Birth and Infancy of Jesus (1-2) Book 1—The Kingdom of Heaven is Announced  Narrative (Galilean ministry; 3-4)  Teaching (Sermon the Mount; 5-7) Book 2—The Kingdom of Heaven is Preached  Narrative (8:1-9:34)  Teaching (9:35-11:1)

90 MATTHEW Key Themes  Messianic interest  Jesus is the new Moses  Structure: Book 3—The Mystery of the Kingdom of Heaven  Narrative (11:2-12)  Teaching (parables) (13:1-52) Book 4—The Church as the Kingdom of Heaven  Narrative (13:53-17)  Teaching (18)

91 MATTHEW Key Themes  Messianic interest  Jesus is the new Moses  Structure: Book 5—The Advent of the Kingdom of Heaven  Narrative (19-22)  Teaching (23-26) The Passion and Resurrection (26-28)

92 MATTHEW Key Themes  Jesus is the fulfiller of prophecy  His passages sometimes bring questions  Jew first, then the Gentile  The Church  Only Gospel writer to use the word “Church”  Eschatology (end times)

93 MARK Author: John Mark  Papias states that he wrote from Rome with Peter as his source.  Is he the naked guy? Date: 50 to 60 AD Written to Roman Christians

94 MARK Key themes:  Jesus as a busy man  Gospel for gentiles  Blunt view of people Textual question: The ending of Mark

95 LUKE Author: Luke, a doctor and companion of Paul’s  Author of both Luke and Acts  Both dedicated to same man  Only Gentile author in the NT  Some wonder if there is medical language or interests in his Gospel

96 LUKE Date: AD ? Written to Theophilus  “Most Excellent” a social rank  Strong catechetical emphasis

97 LUKE Themes in Luke:  Universality of the Gospel—Gentiles and women are prominent  Prayer  Holy Spirit

98 JOHN Author: John the apostle.  John Drane: “The question of authorship has always been rather confused.”  No, it has not.

99 JOHN Author: John the apostle.  Early Church evidence  Irenaenus states that Polycarp, who was a student of John’s, said that he was the author of this Gospel and that it was written in Ephesus.  “The Elder John” This comes from Papias, once again quoted in Eusebius. Would the early church would give a Gospel to man of whom nothing was really known? Eusebius mentions the Elder John is to get away from the idea that Revelation was written by the apostle.

100 JOHN Author: John the apostle.  Internal evidence  Gives great deal of geographical detail  Author claims to be an eyewitness  John, son of Zebedee, is never named.  There is the “disciple whom Jesus loved.” This disciple is one of the 12 Close connection with Peter Given care of Jesus’ mother

101 JOHN Date: Around AD. Purpose: John 20:30-31 Themes:  Emphasis on the Old Testament  The Sprit  Love, truth, light, life, and abiding are all abstract themes that keep coming up.


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