States that slavery must end in the United States and all of its territories.
Black Americans were granted citizenship and guaranteed their Civil Rights.
“The First Vote" A.R. Waud. Black Voting Rights. It sought to protect the rights of citizens, particularly former slaves, to vote in federal and state elections
Jim Crow laws segregated blacks politically by making it difficult for them to vote. For instance, they required voters to pay a poll tax as well as prove that they could read.
Although African Americans now supposedly had the same rights as white society, they were still segregated. After the American Civil War most states in the South passed anti-African American legislation. These became known as Jim Crow laws.American Civil War
These laws included segregation in social/educational aspects as well… –Schools and Hospitals –Theaters –Water fountains –Restaurants and Hotels –Public transportation –Some states forbid –inter-racial marriages
Court case that stated: using facilities not designated for their race were criminally liable under the statute. FOUND GUILTY!! filed a petition That segregation stigmatized blacks and stamped inferior in violation Was granted
The Supreme Court went even further to legalize racism by ruling that segregation was lawful as long as blacks and whites had access to equal facilities, but separate entities. (EX. Separate Water Fountains)
These laws were instituted in 1896 and were not abolished till the late 1950’s (even then still not completely).
Realize that not all of the Justices supported this view, many felt that the “Constitution is colorblind and neither knows or tolerates classes among citizens Realize that not all of the Justices supported this view, many felt that the “Constitution is colorblind and neither knows or tolerates classes among citizens.”
The Roaring 20’s The new concept of “credit” People were buying: –Automobiles –Appliances –Clothes Fun times reigned –Dancing –Flappers –Drinking
1929-1939 Stock market crash Didn’t realize the effect it would have No money to replenish what was borrowed Many found being broke humiliating.
Why was this bad? Credit system –People didn’t really have the money they were spending WWI –The U.S. was a major credit loaner to other nations in need –Many of these nations could not pay us back
The Stock Market CRASHED People bought stocks on margins –If a stock is $100 you can pay $10 now and the rest later when the stock rose Stocks fall –Now the person has less than $100 and no money to pay back
And then…. With people panicking about their money investors tried to sell their stocks –This leads to a huge decline in stocks –Stocks were worthless now People who bought on “margins” now could not pay Investors were average people that were now broke
Herbert Hoover was president at the start Philosophy: We’ll make it! What He Did: Nothing The poor were looking for help and no ideas on how to correct or help were coming
Farmers were already feeling the effects –Prices of crops went down –Many farms foreclosed People could not afford luxuries –Factories shut down –Businesses went out Banks could not pay out money People could not pay their taxes –Schools shut down due to lack of funds Many families became homeless and had to live in shanties
Many waited in unemployment lines hoping for a job.
People in cities would wait in line for bread to bring to their family.
Some families were forced to relocate because they had no money.
Some families were forced to live in shanty towns –A grouping of shacks and tents in vacant lots They were referred to as “Hooverville” because of President Hoover’s lack of help during the depression.
Some families tried to make money by selling useful crafts like baskets.
When he was inaugurated unemployment had increased by 7 million. Poor sections (like Harlem) had 50% of the pop. unemployed Instated the “New Deal” Yea! Frankie!
People everywhere were effected by the depression It wasn’t till President Roosevelt took over and tried to put the economy back together that people even saw a glimmer of hope
9 young African- American men (13-20) accused of raping 2 white girls in 1931 Immediately sentenced to death Trials went on for nearly 15 years before all the men were dismissed –Tom Robinson, a character in TKAM, symbolizes one of these boys for being wrongfully accused.
Started on a train bound for Memphis Several white men boarded and picked a fight with the black men Whites were forced off train by the 9 black men. The white men reported the the black men had raped two white girls on the train to authorities. They were immediately arrested and tried in front of an all-white jury.
The trials caused a huge uproar amongst the black community.