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Presentation on theme: "MR. LIPMAN’S APUS POWERPOINT CHAPTER 34"— Presentation transcript:

The Road to World War II

2 Keys to the Chapter Isolationism Nationalism Totalitarianism
Tripartite Pact Spanish Civil War Neutrality Acts Germany Starts War 9/1/39 Lend-Lease Atlantic Conference Japanese Embargo

3 Isolationism -Nationalism
London Conference- USA first agrees to go to help world economic crisis then backs away Philippines Independence- We agree to their independence in 12 years (1946) –Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934 Recognize Russia to help trade and have allie against Germany (1933)

4 Good Neighbor Policy – To reduce hatred and increase trade with Latin America - make S.A. an ally against Europe: Endorse non-intervention in domestic issues in Latin America (renouncing Roosevelt Corollary) Withdraw from Haiti Reduce enforcement of Platt Amendment Not intervene in Mexico when it nationalizes oil companies (tells companies to negotiate)

5 1934 – Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act
FDR could lower tariffs if others did the same No approval of Senate to avoid politics & time delays By 1939 – 21 countries had trade agreements with US; US trade increased as a result BELIEF IS THAT INCREASED TRADE REDUCES THE CHANCE OF WAR AND IMPROVES ECONOMIES OF ALL PARTICIPATING NATIONS


7 Totalitarianism USSR – Joseph Stalin Germany – Adolf Hitler
Italy – Benito Mussolini They rise to power from chaos caused by WWI and in 1936 Hitler aligns with Mussolini in the Rome-Berlin Axis.

8 Mussolini and Hitler following the Rome-Berlin Axis of 1936

9 Nationalist militarists in Japan
Resented Europe/America limit on growth 1934 – Japan terminated Naval Treaty that had set a limit of ships on 5:5:3 1935 – Naval conference in London Japan demanded equality with US and Britain (5:5:5) but is refused and walks out Japan begins crash naval build-up of ships 1935 – Japan withdrew from League of Nations 1940 – Tripartite Pact between Japan, Germany, and Italy

10 Isolationism in the US increased in response to problems in Asia and Europe
Believed oceans protected the US Disillusionment from false hopes of “democracy” after World War I Anger at Allies who had defaulted on WWI debts Many support amendment requiring people vote for War directly Neutrality Acts Isolationists were majority in Congress through 1938 3 separate laws (1935, 1936, 1937)

11 Neutrality Act of 1935 Neutrality Act of 1936 Neutrality Act of 1937
President authorized to prohibit all arms shipments and forbid US citizens to travel on ships of belligerent nations Neutrality Act of 1936 Outlaw extension of loans and credit to belligerents Neutrality Act of 1937 Ban shipment of arms to opposing sides in Spain civil war

12 No Foreign Entanglements ------------- A False Hope

13 US and the Spanish Civil War 1936-39
At first, because this was a civil war, US could ship munitions to Loyalist government 1937 Neutrality Act forbade shipment to either side and Loyalists will loss war US stays out but Germany and Italy don’t so dictators are encouraged by their victory and the placement of Francisco Franco as Spain’s dictator

14 1937 – Japan invades China; FDR says not a war
Allowed the US to continue shipping small amount of munitions to China (which US wanted to help) Japan could purchase war material (because the US had to be neutral, even though US opposed to Japan fighting and winning this war) Japan commits atrocities against the Chinese people October 1937 FDR makes Quarantine Speech: OK’s use of Economic Embargoes against aggressor nations - angers isolationists

15 Germany Gets Aggressive
Hitler’s violates Treaty of Versailles claiming he only wants what “rightfully belongs to Germany”: 1935 – introduced draft in Germany 1936 – troops marched into demilitarized Rhineland 1930s – progression of attacks on German Jews 1930s – built German mechanized army and air force 1938 – The bloodless takeover of Austria 1938 – Munich Conference and British appease Hitler who promises he wants no further land. Chamberlain “we have achieved peace in our lifetime” {Churchill ridicules this in Parliament)

16 Neville Chamberlain: “Peace in Our Life Time” after Munich Sept. 1938

17 March 1939 – Hitler takes Rest of Czechoslovakia So much for “Peace in our Life time”

18 August 1939 they sign non-aggression pact

19 Late August 1939 – Hitler demands German land given to Poland after WWI
Poland refuses and asks for help Britain and France promise to defend Poland Hitler no longer fears Russia & their pact allows Russia a little of Poland while Hitler grabs the rest

20 September 1, 1939 – Hitler attacks Poland (blitzkrieg – lighting war) and WWII Starts
Britain and France declare war against Germany Poland defeated in 3 weeks (brutal massacre of tanks against horses) USSR entered from east to split Poland with Germany part of a secret agreement Hitler & Stalin made

21 Why is Poland surprised at what was the obvious result of Hitler/Stalin Pact?

22 US response to Germany attack on Poland:
Roosevelt issues statement of neutrality US opinion overwhelmingly anti-German, but did not want to be sucked into the war US debated whether to assist Britain and France Neutrality Act of 1936 barred US from sending these countries arms or other assistance

23 Neutrality Act of 1939 favors European democracies
Set up “cash-and-carry” policy Europeans could buy US war materials, but would have to pay cash and transport them in their own ships to avoid attacks on US ships Effects of cash-and-carry is to help allies because they control the seas but hurts China since Japan controls the Pacific October 1939 to March 1940 Hitler “quiet” as he realigns troops to attack France while at the same time “hinting” he would like to achieve peace.

24 1933-40 as seen through the eyes of an America isolationist

25 War Heats Up April 1940 – Hitler attacks Denmark and Norway
May 1940 – Hitler attacks Netherlands and Belgium May/ June 1940 – Germans attack and defeat France, with Italy attacking from the South British evacuate most of their troops in frantic transport across English Channel at Dunkirk Chamberlain resigns and Winston Churchill elected as prime minister of England

26 British Evacuation at Dunkirk

27 America takes action with fall of France because fear that if British fall Germany would become master of Europe and Oceans: Congress appropriates $37B for military build up 5X larger than New Deal annual budget June 1940 – conscription (draft) started for first time ever during peacetime -August 1940 Battle of Britain begins &Royal air force prevents quick German invasion -America agrees to help British by any means short of war

28 German Bombers over London During the Battle of Britain - 1940

29 “America First” the fight for isolationism

30 September 2, 1940 – Destroyers for bases
US transferred 50 old destroyers to Britain Britain gives US 8 valuable defensive bases in Western Hemisphere (99-year rent-free leases) Americans okay anything “short of war”. FDR says he wants to retire but instead runs for third term because of war threat---- Promises that “our boys will not fight”---beats Willkie with slogan “better a third termer rather than a third rater”.

31 Congress Passes Lend-Lease Law March 1941
Defended as law that would keep us out of war: US sends weapons instead of soldiers US would be “arsenal of democracy” Britain to give used weapons or equivalent back when war was over Criticism from isolationists or anti-Roosevelt Republicans FDR compares it to lending a hose to a neighbor when his house is on fire – just give it back when fire over Isolationists argue it is more like lending chewing gum no one will want it back

32 Effects of the Lend-Lease Law
Billions worth of supplies sent to Allies Abandonment of even pretense of neutrality Increased production in factories; helped prepare for war Germany began sinking US merchant ships June 22, 1941 – Hitler attacked USSR (Operation Barbarossa) – a three prong attack Hoped to knock USSR out and use their supplies (oil) to defeat Britain Roosevelt used lend-lease to give USSR $ Hitler held back at Moscow in December 1941 by Soviet army and early Russian winter

33 The world’s view of Hitler’s attack on Russia

34 August 1941 – the Atlantic Charter
Roosevelt secretly met Winston Churchill on ship off Newfoundland; USSR agreed to it later that year 8 points outlined plans for postwar world Self-determination for former colonies Restoration of govt’s taken by dictators Disarmament New League of Nations (eventually U.N.)

Mid-1940 – Roosevelt bans sale of aviation fuel and scrap metal to Japan September 1940 – Embargo extended to steel and other materials July 1941 – Freeze all Japanese assets and bank accounts in US and impose total trade embargo with Japan Fall 1941 talks with Japan to negotiate trade and peace but Japan unwilling to back away from territory gained

December 7, 1941 – attack at Pearl Harbor 3 hour attack on Sunday morning 2,400 Americans killed & 200 planes destroyed 3 aircraft carriers out of harbor and not hit Roosevelt – “a date which will live in infamy “ December 11, 1941 – Italy, Germany declared war on America


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