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Spraying Your Rose Garden A little bit about a lot of things...

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1 Spraying Your Rose Garden A little bit about a lot of things...

2 Topics for Tonight Rose garden spray equipment Rose garden spray equipment Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Garden chemicals/pesticides Garden chemicals/pesticides –Labels and MSDSs –Types of pesticides –Modes of Action Pests versus Pesticides Pests versus Pesticides

3 More Topics What pesticides to buy and where What pesticides to buy and where –Specialty/patented products –Generics –Ready-to-Use (RTU) and Over-the- Counter (OTC) Adjuvants and chemical helpers Adjuvants and chemical helpers Shelf life, storage, and disposal Shelf life, storage, and disposal

4 The Application of Pesticides Drench – application of the diluted, systemic concentrate to the soil around the bush for absorption through the bush’s root system Drench – application of the diluted, systemic concentrate to the soil around the bush for absorption through the bush’s root system Fumigant – application as a gas/vapor within a confined space such as a greenhouse Fumigant – application as a gas/vapor within a confined space such as a greenhouse Spray – application via atomized droplets to the bush’s foliage and canes Spray – application via atomized droplets to the bush’s foliage and canes

5 Rose garden spray equipment For the small garden (10 or fewer bushes) For the small garden (10 or fewer bushes) –RTU products in 16 oz or 24 oz spray bottles –Hose-end sprayers with metered mixing rates –Small (1 quart to 1 gallon) pump-up sprayers, e.g., Solo model 418-1L

6 Solo ® 418-1L Hand-Held Sprayer

7 Rose garden spray equipment For the medium-sized garden (10 to 100 bushes) For the medium-sized garden (10 to 100 bushes) –Up to 20+ gallons of spray per application (think spider mites) –Back-Pack or roll-around sprayers with 3, 4, or 5 gallon capacities –Hand pumped or battery-powered

8 Solo ® 425DLX 4-gallon Back-Pack Sprayer

9 Hudson ® NeverPump 4- gallon Bak-Pak Sprayer

10 Rose garden spray equipment For the large (100+ bushes) rose garden For the large (100+ bushes) rose garden –Now we may be talking 50 gallons or more of spray per application –Roll-around, battery-powered, heavy-duty stuff –Maybe even gasoline-powered...

11 HotShot Rollaround Battery-Powered Sprayer

12 Dramm ® Gas-Powered 20-gallon Sprayer

13 Internet sources for spray equipment information – look under Our Products/Spray Equipment – look under Our Products/Spray Equipment – look under Categories/Sprayers – look under Categories/Sprayers – search for Hudson – search for Hudson – look under Backpack Sprayers – look under Backpack Sprayers – look under Rittenhouse Sprayers – look under Rittenhouse Sprayers – look under Pest Management/Sprayers – look under Pest Management/Sprayers – look under Rechargeable or Compression Sprayers – look under Rechargeable or Compression Sprayers – look under Chemical Applicators – look under Chemical Applicators – browse the website for lots of good sprayer info – browse the website for lots of good sprayer info – follow the links from Our Products – follow the links from Our Products – look under Products/Rose and Garden Care – look under Products/Rose and Garden Care – select Sevin or Daconil – select Sevin or Daconil -- look under Online Store/Garden Care-Flowers -- look under Online Store/Garden Care-Flowers – look under Our Products/Spray Equipment – look under Our Products/Spray Equipment – look under Categories/Sprayers – look under Categories/Sprayers – search for Hudson – search for Hudson – look under Backpack Sprayers – look under Backpack Sprayers – look under Rittenhouse Sprayers – look under Rittenhouse Sprayers – look under Pest Management/Sprayers – look under Pest Management/Sprayers – look under Rechargeable or Compression Sprayers – look under Rechargeable or Compression Sprayers – look under Chemical Applicators – look under Chemical Applicators – browse the website for lots of good sprayer info – browse the website for lots of good sprayer info – follow the links from Our Products – follow the links from Our Products – look under Products/Rose and Garden Care – look under Products/Rose and Garden Care – select Sevin or Daconil – select Sevin or Daconil -- look under Online Store/Garden Care-Flowers -- look under Online Store/Garden Care-Flowers

14 Personal Protective Equipment To protect the skin, eyes and lungs from undiluted chemicals and the diluted spray material To protect the skin, eyes and lungs from undiluted chemicals and the diluted spray material –Long-sleeved shirt and long pants –Chemical resistant gloves –Shoes plus socks –Protective eyewear, and a –Dust/mist filtering respirator

15 Chemical splash goggles with ventilation

16 Moldex ® 2300 N95 (TC- 84A approval) Respirator

17 Tyvek ® Hood and Respirator

18 Garden Chemicals/Pesticides Labels and MSDSs Labels and MSDSs –Always read the label! –First items: product trade name, brief description, identification and amount of active ingredient (AI) –Next: the “signal word” – Danger, Warning, and Caution in decreasing order of toxicity –Followed by: Precautionary Statements – safety, first aid, PPE, etc. –And then: Use Recommendations – pests controlled, application rates, mixing procedures, etc.

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20 “ Decoding ” the Labels Consider Merit 75 WP Consider Merit 75 WP –The 75 means Merit contains 75% of its active ingredient, Imidacloprid –The WP indicates this form of Merit is a Wettable Powder On other products On other products –SC = soluble concentrate; WDG = wettable, dispersible granules; EW = emulsified in water; WSP = water soluble packaging

21 Pesticide Toxicity Signal Words Signal Words –Caution = slightly toxic –Warning = moderately toxic –Danger = highly toxic Lethal Dose Lethal Dose –LD50 is the dose that would kill 50% of any test population –LD50 is measured in milligrams of pesticide per kilogram of weight of the test subject –LD50 can be below 50 mg/kg for Danger, over 50 to 2,000 for Warning, and over 500 to 20,000 for Caution –LD50 values are found in the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the pesticide in question

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23 Getting the Labels And the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) And the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Sources of labels: Sources of labels: –On the chemicals’ containers –Manufacturers’ websites – for example, –Vendors’ websites – for example, –www.cdms.net – offers labels and MSDS for all registered pesticides – search by product name –www.greenbook.net – another site like cdms.net – however, requires simple registration

24 Hierarchy of Pesticides Pesticides Insecticides Miticides Ovicide/Larvacide Fungicides Botryticide Herbicides

25 Systemic Chemicals Apply to the foliage as a spray or to the roots as a drench Apply to the foliage as a spray or to the roots as a drench Moves (typically, up) through the plant’s vascular system Moves (typically, up) through the plant’s vascular system –Phloem cells – like “arteries” through which sugars and other plant products move –Xylem – tubular structure for the transport of water and dissolved minerals --think tree growth rings Chemicals stay within the plant – don’t wash off Chemicals stay within the plant – don’t wash off Downside – systemics don’t enter the blooms Downside – systemics don’t enter the blooms

26 Translaminar Chemicals Trans = across or through, like transatlantic Trans = across or through, like transatlantic Laminar = layered Laminar = layered Translaminar = through layers Translaminar = through layers Sometimes referred to as locally systemic Sometimes referred to as locally systemic Applied to foliage as a spray, these chemicals are absorbed by the plant Applied to foliage as a spray, these chemicals are absorbed by the plant They move through foliage from one surface to the other They move through foliage from one surface to the other Great for spider mites which feed on the underside of leaves and are nearly unaffected by systemics Great for spider mites which feed on the underside of leaves and are nearly unaffected by systemics

27 Contact Sprays Applied to foliage, buds and blooms as a spray Applied to foliage, buds and blooms as a spray Remain on the surface of foliage and blooms Remain on the surface of foliage and blooms Not absorbed by the plant Not absorbed by the plant Pretty much the only way to protect blooms Pretty much the only way to protect blooms Downside – contact sprays wash off in the rain Downside – contact sprays wash off in the rain

28 Resistance Management/Modes of Action Resistance management in the garden is a problem akin to certain antibiotics losing their effectiveness in humans due to repeated or improper use Resistance management in the garden is a problem akin to certain antibiotics losing their effectiveness in humans due to repeated or improper use Repeated use of the same pesticide allows the target pest to mutate and adapt and become resistant to the pesticide Repeated use of the same pesticide allows the target pest to mutate and adapt and become resistant to the pesticide Each insecticide and fungicide has a specific mode of action (MOA) in the way it disables and kills its target pest Each insecticide and fungicide has a specific mode of action (MOA) in the way it disables and kills its target pest If these MOAs are alternated from one spraying to the next the target pest is very less likely to adapt If these MOAs are alternated from one spraying to the next the target pest is very less likely to adapt

29 Resistance Management (Cont.) Or, if chemicals with different MOAs are mixed in a single spraying the target pest is unable to adapt Or, if chemicals with different MOAs are mixed in a single spraying the target pest is unable to adapt The Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC – in its latest publication identifies 28 insecticide MOAs The Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC – in its latest publication identifies 28 insecticide MOAswww.irac-online.org The Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC – has identified over 40 fungicide MOAs The Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC – has identified over 40 fungicide MOAswww.frac.info Dr. Ray Cloyd and I decided that the large number of MOAs should and could be consolidated to be of more use to rosarians – we came up with 6 insecticide MOAs and 6 fungicide MOAs Dr. Ray Cloyd and I decided that the large number of MOAs should and could be consolidated to be of more use to rosarians – we came up with 6 insecticide MOAs and 6 fungicide MOAs

30 Resistance Management (Cont.) Your handout contains the two tables that Dr. Cloyd and I derived from the IRAC and FRAC publications Your handout contains the two tables that Dr. Cloyd and I derived from the IRAC and FRAC publications MOA 6 in both tables is what Dr. Cloyd calls the “napalm” MOA – the chemicals in this group kill on contact and leave little or no room for adaptation MOA 6 in both tables is what Dr. Cloyd calls the “napalm” MOA – the chemicals in this group kill on contact and leave little or no room for adaptation I’ve found two useful insecticide partnerings to be Merit and Tempo and Avid and TetraSan I’ve found two useful insecticide partnerings to be Merit and Tempo and Avid and TetraSan An effective fungicide partnering is Banner Maxx (alternated with Cleary’s 3336F) and Compass An effective fungicide partnering is Banner Maxx (alternated with Cleary’s 3336F) and Compass

31 A few words about Herbicides This is really about controlling weeds This is really about controlling weeds Before they sprout use pre-emergent herbicides like Preen ® (AI=trifluralin) Before they sprout use pre-emergent herbicides like Preen ® (AI=trifluralin) After they sprout use herbicides like Roundup ® (AI=glyphosate) After they sprout use herbicides like Roundup ® (AI=glyphosate) –Never broadcast spray –Use RTU products with nozzles provided –Don’t use within 18” of the base of the bushes –Roundup is harmless to animals and after it comes in contact with soil

32 Roundup ® RTU from Scott

33 Specific Chemicals for Specific Pests Insecticides Insecticides –Orthene – MOA 1 – a translaminar chemical – spray for the control of aphids, Japanese Beetles, and thrips –Sevin – MOA 1 – a contact spray – very effective against Japanese Beetles – has resistance management problems with thrips if used alone – combine with Tempo, Talstar or Conserve –Talstar – MOA 2 – a contact spray – also registered as a miticide – good control of aphids and Japanese Beetles – look also for Bifen I/T – exactly the same as Talstar but less expensive ($59.90 vs $99.99 per quart)

34 More Pest Killers Insecticides (Cont.) Insecticides (Cont.) –Tempo – MOA 2 - a highly-effective contact spray – kills just about any insect –Avid – MOA 3 – a translaminar spray – kills adult spider mites –Floramite – MOA 3 – a contact spray – kills all spider mite life stages –Akari 5SC – MOA 3 – a contact spray – kills all spider mite life stages – 60% the cost of Floramite –Merit - MOA 4 – a very effective systemic chemical – kills any insects that are eating the foliage – use as a drench or spray –Conserve – MOA 4 – a translaminar spray – probably the most effective attack on thrips

35 ...And More Insecticides (Cont.) Insecticides (Cont.) –Hexygon – MOA 5 – a contact spray for the control of spider mite larva and eggs – combine with Avid –TetraSan – MOA 5 – a translaminar spray for the control of spider mite larva and eggs – combine with Avid for a translaminar spray addressing all mite life stages –Forbid 4F – MOA 6 – a translaminar spray for the control of all spider mite life stages – minimum resistance management problems – very expensive –Kontos – MOA 6 – a new “two-way” systemic chemical – an effective replacement/substitute for Merit

36 Now...Disease (Fungus) Control Fungicides Fungicides –Banner Maxx – MOA 1 – a systemic chemical that attacks blackspot, powdery mildew and rust –Eagle 20 EW – MOA 1 – very similar to Banner Maxx but less toxic (CAUTION instead of WARNING) – same active ingredient as Systhane –Decree 50 WDG – MOA 1 – specifically registered as a botryticide –Cleary’s 3336F – MOA 2 – a systemic chemical that can be alternated with Banner Maxx –Chipco Flo – MOA 3 – specifically registered to control botrytis blight – alternate with Decree

37 More Disease Control Fungicides (Cont.) Fungicides (Cont.) –Subdue Maxx – MOA 4 – targets root and stem rot – primarily used as a drench in greenhouses –Compass – MOA 5 – a translaminar chemical that controls just about every rose disease, including botrytis, downy mildew, and powdery mildew –Heritage – MOA 5 – a suitable substitute for Compass –Alliette – MOA 6 – an aluminum-based systemic chemical that specifically targets downy mildew –Manzate – MOA 6 – a zinc- and manganese-based contact spray for the very effective eradication of blackspot – now sold as Pentathlon –Zyban – MOAs 2 and 6 – a combination of the active ingredients in Cleary’s 3336F and Manzate – comes as a fine powder

38 Pesticide Acquisition – Where to Buy Where to learn about them - other rosarians, ads in rose magazines and newsletters, rose forums on the Internet, and rose care websites like: Where to learn about them - other rosarians, ads in rose magazines and newsletters, rose forums on the Internet, and rose care websites like: –www.rosemania.com –www.rosecare.com –www.saveonchemicals.com –www.growersupply.com –www.southernag.com –www.pestproducts.com –And links from

39 What about generics?... Pesticides like Compass, Forbid and Kontos are “on-patent” and command high prices Pesticides like Compass, Forbid and Kontos are “on-patent” and command high prices Generics are pesticides that have come “off-patent” like Merit, Avid and Banner Maxx Generics are pesticides that have come “off-patent” like Merit, Avid and Banner Maxx Generics often cost less than 50% of the cost of the “on-patent” products Generics often cost less than 50% of the cost of the “on-patent” products

40 Some examples of generics Lucid = Avid -- $145 vs. $285 (quart) Lucid = Avid -- $145 vs. $285 (quart) Zenith = Merit -- $10 vs. $60 (2oz) Zenith = Merit -- $10 vs. $60 (2oz) Honor Guard = Banner Maxx -- $31 vs. $70 (pint) Honor Guard = Banner Maxx -- $31 vs. $70 (pint) OHP 6672 = Cleary’s 3336F -- $29 vs. $73 (quart) OHP 6672 = Cleary’s 3336F -- $29 vs. $73 (quart) Bifen I/T = Talstar -- $42 vs. $80 (quart) Bifen I/T = Talstar -- $42 vs. $80 (quart)

41 RTU and OTC Products Products available at Lowe’s, Home Depot, etc. Products available at Lowe’s, Home Depot, etc. Bayer Advanced Garden Products Bayer Advanced Garden Products –www.bayeradvanced.com –Rose & Flower Insect Killer A combination of Merit and Tempo A combination of Merit and Tempo Available in spray bottle, hose-end sprayer and concentrate Available in spray bottle, hose-end sprayer and concentrate –2 in 1 Systemic Rose & Flower Care Granules sprinkled around bush and watered-in Granules sprinkled around bush and watered-in fertilizer fertilizer Orthene-like systemic insecticide - disulfoton Orthene-like systemic insecticide - disulfoton

42 RTU and OTC Products (Cont.) More Bayer Advanced Garden Products More Bayer Advanced Garden Products –All-in-One Rose & Flower Care Merit insecticide plus Banner Maxx fungicide Merit insecticide plus Banner Maxx fungicide fertilizer fertilizer Mixed 4 tbsp/quart and used as a drench Mixed 4 tbsp/quart and used as a drench –Bayer Advanced Disease Control Concentrate diluted 1.5 tbsp/gallon to spray Concentrate diluted 1.5 tbsp/gallon to spray Active ingredient same as Banner Maxx Active ingredient same as Banner Maxx

43 Some Other RTU/OTC Products Safer Brand 3 in 1 Garden Spray – uses fatty acids, sulfur and neem oil (MOA 6) to create an environmentally safe insecticide, fungicide and miticide Safer Brand 3 in 1 Garden Spray – uses fatty acids, sulfur and neem oil (MOA 6) to create an environmentally safe insecticide, fungicide and miticide Green Light Bioganic Organic Rose & Flower Ready- to-Use – uses plant oils (MOA 6) to create an environmentally safe insecticide, fungicide and miticide Green Light Bioganic Organic Rose & Flower Ready- to-Use – uses plant oils (MOA 6) to create an environmentally safe insecticide, fungicide and miticide Ortho Orthenex Insect & Disease Control – active ingredients are acephate (Orthene) and triforine (same chemical group as Banner Maxx) Ortho Orthenex Insect & Disease Control – active ingredients are acephate (Orthene) and triforine (same chemical group as Banner Maxx) GardenTech Sevin – OTC version of this very effective insecticide (MOA 1) GardenTech Sevin – OTC version of this very effective insecticide (MOA 1)

44 Pesticide Storage Rules for safe storage: Rules for safe storage: –Be sure that the caps on all pesticide containers are securely sealed, and use the original container whenever possible. –Keep pesticides at “room temperature” in a locked room and out of reach of children or animals. –Do not carry over pesticide products whose labels are lost or illegible. –Store glass bottles in a metal or plastic container -- in case the glass breaks its contents are contained. –As a precaution store water soluble bags (e.g., Zyban) in a waterproof container. –Try to purchase pesticides in a container size small enough that the product will be used up during one growing season – in view of the shelf life limitations this could prove to be the most economical way to stock your chemical arsenal.

45 Pesticide Shelf Life Indicators of pesticide breakdown: Indicators of pesticide breakdown: –Emulsifiable Concentrates – addition of water does not produce a milky solution. –Emulsified in Water -- the concentrate has separated and shaking or the addition of water does not produce a milky solution. –Wettable Powders – powder has formed lumps and will not mix or disperse in water. –Water Dispersible Granules – not as likely to lump, but should continue to mix easily with or disperse in water. Don’t rely on powders stored more than two years and liquids more than three Don’t rely on powders stored more than two years and liquids more than three

46 Pesticide Disposal When the pesticide is no longer effective DON’T throw it in the trash When the pesticide is no longer effective DON’T throw it in the trash Many of the chemicals we use are real threats to our groundwater (e.g., Merit) Many of the chemicals we use are real threats to our groundwater (e.g., Merit) Empty containers at local Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Center Empty containers at local Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Center –Wood Recycling Facility, 3925 North Hawthorne Street in Chattanooga Triple-rinse recyclable containers – apply rinse water to garden Triple-rinse recyclable containers – apply rinse water to garden

47 And, Finally...Adjuvants Adjuvant – serving to help or assist – something to make a spray more effective Adjuvant – serving to help or assist – something to make a spray more effective Stirrup M – a pheromone (sexual attractant) that draws spider mites to any spray in which it’s mixed Stirrup M – a pheromone (sexual attractant) that draws spider mites to any spray in which it’s mixed Indicate 5 – adjusts pH of spray water and serves as a spreader-sticker – most sprays more effective in a slightly acidic liquid Indicate 5 – adjusts pH of spray water and serves as a spreader-sticker – most sprays more effective in a slightly acidic liquid Hi-Yield Spreader-Sticker (or any other OTC brand) – makes spray adhere to foliage instead of dribbling off Hi-Yield Spreader-Sticker (or any other OTC brand) – makes spray adhere to foliage instead of dribbling off


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