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Ch. 13 - Reformation Catholic Responses By: Lynn Wang Period 5 Caravaggio

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 13 - Reformation Catholic Responses By: Lynn Wang Period 5 Caravaggio

1 Ch Reformation Catholic Responses By: Lynn Wang Period 5 Caravaggio

2 Before We Begin… Church Strengths: – Most of the population remained loyal to the Church 2 – Had appeal of security and familiarity, as well as splendor in rituals, art 1 – Support from poor by Church charity 1 Church Weaknesses: – Many areas of Europe turned Protestant 1 – Pope has limited power 1 – Need for organized, defined doctrine 1 Church recognized need for reforms… 1 Counter-Reformation/Catholic Revival 1 (Chambers) 2 (Sherman)

3 Reformation Map Map of Europe separated by each region’s religion

4 Pope Paul III Previously, weak popes in Catholic Church 1 Pope Paul III is elected Ultimate goal: strengthen papacy’s role in Church 1 1 (Chambers) 2 (Pollen “The Counter-Reformation”) Proposes Church Council to organize Church 1 doctrine  Council of Trent (1545) 1 Roman Inquisition 1 Added highly qualified members to College of Cardinals (elects popes) to ensure succession of competent popes 1 St. Pius V, Gregory XIII, Sixtus V 2 Pope Paul III - Titian

5 Pope Paul III (Cont.) Not particularly pious Trained to become an apolostic notary - handles Church’s paperwork (“Pope Paul III” -wiki, “Notarius”) Had a mistress (Sylvia Ruffini), several children (gave positions, ex: cardinal) (“Pope Paul III”) **Interesting thought** - Pope Paul III embodied the “impious” papacy that began the Reformation Made Sublimus Dei – forbid slavery of native Americans, but instituted it elsewhere (“Sublimus Dei”) Supported the arts Farnesse Palace (“Pope Paul III - NNDB”) Had Michelangelo paint The Last Judgement, continue St. Peter’s basilica (“Pope Paul III - NNDB”) The Last Judgement – Michelangelo anity/Michelangelo_Frescoe_Last_Judgement%20Sisten%20C hapel.jpg

6 Council of Trent Consisted of Church leaders 1 – Italians (supported papacy) – were majority 1 – Non-Italians (wanted diluted religious authority) 1 Met through in Trent, Italy 1 1 (Chambers) 2 (“Counter-Reformation”) Focused on clarifying Church practices 1 To end doubt and ambiguity 1 “For the peace and union of the Church; for the reformation of the Clergy and the Christian people; for the…extinction of the enemies of the Christian name, -…the sacred…council of Trent…hath begun” (Weber 76). Attempts at curbing papacy’s luxurious lifestyle with reforms 2 Thomas Aquinas’ ideas are central 1

7 Thomas Aquinas ( ) 2 Aristotlean 1 Philosophy is from pre-existing knowledge 1 Used Five Ways to prove the existence of God 1 Theology is to discover truths of God through reasoning but the Church offers the technical aspects 2 Faith and reason combine in harmony 2 1 (McInerny) 2 (“St. Thomas Aquinas”)

8 Council of Trent Conclusions Seven sacraments are unshakable (including transubstantiation) 2 Bible is not enough, Church tradition is essential to faith 1 Priest should be present in many rituals (ex: marriage) 1 Concept of free will, with salvation reached through good deeds and faith 1 Latin version of bible by St. Jerome is made holy 1 Grand rituals encouraged  flowering of art 1 1 (Chambers) 2 (“Counter-Reformation”)

9 St. Teresa Lived from , Spanish 2 Beautiful and frivolous in her youth 3 Sent to convent as a girl, became severely ill, God appeared in visions 1, 2 Teresa gains followers, Church is concerned until Spanish king approves of her 1 Teresa and her followers travel across Spain building covenants 1 3 (Stein) 2 (Zimmerman) 1 (Chambers) St. Teresa

10 Ignatius Loyola Lived from , Spanish 1 Born to a noble family, raised with chivalric, religious values 1 Saw religion in chivalric, military views 1 Believes in discipline, education (studied 11 years, attended universities) 2 1 (Chambers) 2 (Pollen “St. Ignatius Loyola”) 3 (“Society of Jesus”) Had 8-day long vision of an outline of Spiritual Exercises and the Society of Jesus 1 Loyola and followers approved by Paul III in 1538 as a religious order – The Society of Jesus 1 "I will believe that the white that I see is black if the hierarchical Church so defines it” - Loyola 3 Ignatius Loyola

11 The Spiritual Exercises Revised multiple times 1 Discusses Church doctrines and how to live faithfully 1 Requires 4-week long period to examine own faith, make connection to God 1 Salvation is voluntary – there is free will, and good works that one does leads to salvation 1 “Missions” – sections of The Spiritual Exercises preached; popular in England 2 1 (Chambers) 2 (Pollen “St. Ignatius Loyola”) The Spiritual Exercises

12 The Society of Jesus Four duties: – Mission Work 1 – Preaching 1 – Listening to confessions 1 – Teaching 1 Schools became famously good, some Protestants enroll children who converted 1 Intellectually gifted chosen, given high education  effective tool for Church 1 Conversion preferred over execution 1 1 (Chambers)

13 Baroque Period Dramatic, passionate, to awe the audience 1 From idea of grandeur in Church image 1 Used striking contrasts of light and dark 2 Sense of unity emphasized 2 Council of Trent and Catholic Church want art to evoke religious piety 2 1 (Chambers) 2 (“Baroque”) Examples: Caravaggio 1 Rubens 1 Velásquez 1 Bernini 1 Claudio Monteverdi (music) 1

14 Baroque Art Examples Claudio Monteverdi - composer, developed opera and orchestra 1 – Orfeo 1 (Toccata d’Orfeo: com/watch?v=- fH5zbdzV4k) Caravaggio used dramatic light and dark 1 The Calling of St. Matthew – Caravaggio The Fall of Phaeton – Rubens  Rubens painted the magnificence of the Church and faith 1 The Ecstasy of St. Teresa Bernini’s sculpture and architecture epitomized the Baroque Period qualities 1 1 (Chambers)

15 Use of Propaganda Propaganda utilized by both Reformation and Counter- Reformation 1 – Both try to portray other as Devil 1 – Invention of printing press plays large part 1 Catholics demonize Luther 1 Song lyrics with certain words replaced used 1 – Distributed through pamphlets with pictures 1 1 (Hartmann) Luther’s Game of Heresy

16 Other Church Actions Inquisition restarted in – Harsh punishment for accused 1 Index of Forbidden Books in – Books considered heretical, have ideas different from Church, are banned 2 – Only ended in 1966 with Pope Paul VI 2 1 (Cline “Counter-Reformation”) 2 (Cline “Index of Forbidden Books (Index of Prohibited Books)”) The Room of the Roman Inquisition – Picart

17 Women in the Time Period Women became highly involved in community work 1 – Religious orders, like charities 1 1 (Chambers) Baroque Women Fashion


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