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Age of the Reformation I The Pre-Reformation. John Wycliffe 1324-1384 Errr…JohnWyclife Wyclif, Wyclyf, Wyclyffe Wiclif, Wiclef, Wicliff, Wycleff, Whyteclyve,

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Presentation on theme: "Age of the Reformation I The Pre-Reformation. John Wycliffe 1324-1384 Errr…JohnWyclife Wyclif, Wyclyf, Wyclyffe Wiclif, Wiclef, Wicliff, Wycleff, Whyteclyve,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Age of the Reformation I The Pre-Reformation

2 John Wycliffe Errr…JohnWyclife Wyclif, Wyclyf, Wyclyffe Wiclif, Wiclef, Wicliff, Wycleff, Whyteclyve, Wyclyve + about 10 more versions

3 John Wycliffe Morning Star of the ReformationMorning Star of the Reformation Well educated, spent most of life at Oxford and was master of Canterbury HallWell educated, spent most of life at Oxford and was master of Canterbury Hall 1366 with the kings blessing he began rebuking Papal authority1366 with the kings blessing he began rebuking Papal authority 1377 Comes before the Tribunal of William Courtenay and leaves under the protection of the Duke of Lancaster1377 Comes before the Tribunal of William Courtenay and leaves under the protection of the Duke of Lancaster

4 John Wycliffe Pope Gregory XI orders Wycliffe to prison, but dies the year after, and the Papal Schism startsPope Gregory XI orders Wycliffe to prison, but dies the year after, and the Papal Schism starts 1380 Wycliffe founds the “pore priests” oxford graduates who go out preaching many without ordination1380 Wycliffe founds the “pore priests” oxford graduates who go out preaching many without ordination 1382 Courtenay becomes Archibishop of Canterbury and holds the Earthquake Synod1382 Courtenay becomes Archibishop of Canterbury and holds the Earthquake Synod 24 articles of Wycliffe’s were condemned24 articles of Wycliffe’s were condemned

5 John Wycliffe Wycliffe loses King Richard II’s favor, is kicked out of Oxford and all his books are burnedWycliffe loses King Richard II’s favor, is kicked out of Oxford and all his books are burned Wrote the TrialogusWrote the Trialogus Denounced Indulgences as “an abomination of desolation in the holy place”Denounced Indulgences as “an abomination of desolation in the holy place” Was summoned to Rome, but refused saying he submits only to Christ’s authorityWas summoned to Rome, but refused saying he submits only to Christ’s authority

6 John Wycliffe Finishes with help his English paraphrase of the bible based upon the vulgateFinishes with help his English paraphrase of the bible based upon the vulgate 1382 suffers a stroke resulting in minor paralysis1382 suffers a stroke resulting in minor paralysis 1384 has another stroke and dies in church1384 has another stroke and dies in church 1413 Lateran decrees his books should be burned1413 Lateran decrees his books should be burned 1429 Council of Constance orders him Exhumed and burned, scattering his ashes1429 Council of Constance orders him Exhumed and burned, scattering his ashes

7 John Wycliffe main themes in his teachings 1.The Nature of the Church 2.The Fallacy of the Papacy 3.The Priesthood 4.The Falsity of Transubstantiation 5.The use of Scripture

8 John Wycliffe The Nature of the Church A universal Church comprised of the ElectA universal Church comprised of the Elect All those who believe in Christ belong, regardless of their position with the RCCAll those who believe in Christ belong, regardless of their position with the RCC The Peoples’ head is ChristThe Peoples’ head is Christ The concept of church vs. ChurchThe concept of church vs. Church

9 John Wycliffe The Fallacy of the Papacy totum papale officium venenosumtotum papale officium venenosum “The Papal office is wholly poisonous”“The Papal office is wholly poisonous” The Rock is Peter and all peopleThe Rock is Peter and all people Mocked the “most holie fadir”Mocked the “most holie fadir”

10 John Wycliffe The Priesthood Priests Absolution was only meritorious if they themselves were absolvedPriests Absolution was only meritorious if they themselves were absolved Celibacy is good but sinful if mandatoryCelibacy is good but sinful if mandatory No such thing as utilitarian sinNo such thing as utilitarian sin Anti-friarAnti-friar

11 John Wycliffe Falsity of Transubstantiation Communion was meant figurativelyCommunion was meant figuratively No transubstantiation without transaccidentiationNo transubstantiation without transaccidentiation “Super omnia vincit veritas rationis”“Super omnia vincit veritas rationis” The truth of reason will triumph over allThe truth of reason will triumph over all

12 John Wycliffe The use of Scripture Council of Toulouse 1229 forbid the bible to LaymenCouncil of Toulouse 1229 forbid the bible to Laymen Is the absolute authorityIs the absolute authority It has one Literal meaningIt has one Literal meaning Must be accessable to ALLMust be accessable to ALL

13 Lollards A.K.A. WycliffitesA.K.A. Wycliffites Came from the term lolium – tares or lullen – to singCame from the term lolium – tares or lullen – to sing Based in England they were lumped with other heretics like the BeghardsBased in England they were lumped with other heretics like the Beghards Suppressed/Martyred during the InquisitionSuppressed/Martyred during the Inquisition 1 st Generation wasn’t willing to be martyred, the later ones were1 st Generation wasn’t willing to be martyred, the later ones were Against: forced celibacy, transubstantiation, pilgrimages, image worship, priestly confession, indulgences, mitres, oil, incense, and warAgainst: forced celibacy, transubstantiation, pilgrimages, image worship, priestly confession, indulgences, mitres, oil, incense, and war

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15 John Huss John Jon Jan Hus HussJohn Jon Jan Hus Huss A.K.A. “The Goose”A.K.A. “The Goose” Lived in Bohemia, preached in Bethlehem Chapel in Prag(ue)Lived in Bohemia, preached in Bethlehem Chapel in Prag(ue) Was very wycliffean, following & “borrowing” many of his teachingsWas very wycliffean, following & “borrowing” many of his teachings Crusade was called against Naples and Indulgence sellers came to PragCrusade was called against Naples and Indulgence sellers came to Prag Huss publically burned Papal BullsHuss publically burned Papal Bulls

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17 John Huss He was Excommunicated, Interdicted, and ExiledHe was Excommunicated, Interdicted, and Exiled Wrote De Ecclesia – mostly copied WycliffeWrote De Ecclesia – mostly copied Wycliffe Declared the Pope is not to be obeyed if he is a sinnerDeclared the Pope is not to be obeyed if he is a sinner Oct 11, 1414 Huss is promised safe conduct by Emperor Sigismund to the Council of ConstanceOct 11, 1414 Huss is promised safe conduct by Emperor Sigismund to the Council of Constance Huss is falsely charged with escaping and imprisioned next to the latrines, becoming sickHuss is falsely charged with escaping and imprisioned next to the latrines, becoming sick

18 John Huss He is transferred to the control of Sigismund and imprisoned along with ex-pope John XXIIIHe is transferred to the control of Sigismund and imprisoned along with ex-pope John XXIII The council declared the cup forbidden to laity, Huss disagreedThe council declared the cup forbidden to laity, Huss disagreed Is given a public kangaroo trial and condemnedIs given a public kangaroo trial and condemned His books are forbidden and burnedHis books are forbidden and burned

19 John Huss He is declared Heresiarch and his soul is condemned to hell by the councilHe is declared Heresiarch and his soul is condemned to hell by the council He declares “and I commit myself to the most gracious Lord Jesus”He declares “and I commit myself to the most gracious Lord Jesus” He was turned over to Sigismund in order that he be executedHe was turned over to Sigismund in order that he be executed May 30, 1416 is burned at the stake, all the while singing loud praise to GodMay 30, 1416 is burned at the stake, all the while singing loud praise to God

20 Hussites Followers of Huss split into two main groups the Taborites and CalixtinesFollowers of Huss split into two main groups the Taborites and Calixtines Popular revolt occurred in Prag after the burning of HussPopular revolt occurred in Prag after the burning of Huss Council of Constance condemns the followers of Huss and newly elected Pope Martin V calls a crusade against BohemiaCouncil of Constance condemns the followers of Huss and newly elected Pope Martin V calls a crusade against Bohemia The crusade was repelled and the Hussites invaded GermanyThe crusade was repelled and the Hussites invaded Germany Council of Basel made peace in 1431, but the Taborists were unhappyCouncil of Basel made peace in 1431, but the Taborists were unhappy

21 Hussites A 22,000 person slaughter occurred in Prag and the Taborists were defeated by the catholic sympathetic CalixtinesA 22,000 person slaughter occurred in Prag and the Taborists were defeated by the catholic sympathetic Calixtines Calixtines existed until 1629 when they were crushed by FerdinandCalixtines existed until 1629 when they were crushed by Ferdinand Unitares Fratres – the Bohemian Bretheren: moved to the countryside, rejected catholic sacraments, oaths, war, military service, purgatory and unworthy priestsUnitares Fratres – the Bohemian Bretheren: moved to the countryside, rejected catholic sacraments, oaths, war, military service, purgatory and unworthy priests

22 Fullness of time for the Reformation 1.Renaissance 2.Rise of Intellectualism 3.Printing Press 4.Immoral Papacy 5.Nationalism

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