I.Brief Introduction I.Brief Introduction 1.Origin of English Drama Miracle(mystery) play Morality play Interludes
2.Shakespeare’s predecessors 1)Latin influence: Seneca’s fate 2)University Wits Thomas Kyd: Spanish Tragedy Christopher Marlower:Tamburlain the Great(supreme desire of Renaissance men and powerful blank verse) Renaissance and humanism
II.Shakespeare and His Works 1.His life April 23, 1564—April 23, 1616 Stratfor-on-Avon, Warwickshire 2.His works(37/38 plays, 154 sonnets, 2 long poems) general comment
3. 4 periods of his writings 1)apprenticeship period 2)comedies + histories (period of maturity) 3)period of tragedies: 4 great tragedies 4)period of dramatic romances
4. translation of some titles: As You Like It 《皆大欢喜》、 《如愿》 All’s Well That Ends Well 《终成眷 属》
5.New findings about his play 1)The Two Noble Kinsmen (1613) Co-author with John Fletcher 2)a play about Edward III has been recognized by scholars as 39th play by Shakespeare
III. Shakespeare’s language and grammar 1.Archaic words thou, thee, thy (thine), ye=you （ pl ）,hath, hast thou: have you; wilt: will; doeth: does; art:are; Dost thou: do you; didst thou: did you
2.Grammar: 1) est(-st) (didst, wouldst… anst) 2)know not=do not know Bassanio: Do all men kill the things they do not love? 3) Shylock: Hates any man the thing he would not kill? (different formation of questions) 4)Antonio: You may as well forbid the mountain pines/ To wag their high tops, and to make no noise(double negation=positiveness)
IV.Reading of His Excerpts 1. To be or not to be(a soliloquy by Hamlet) Attention to some words respect, regard, conscience, thought=consideration/reflection resolution, action, will (Hamlet: more thought than action;his hesitation )
V.General Comment 1.Shakespeare’s poetry He has 154 sonnets as well as his beautiful and powerful verse lines in his plays. His sonnets are true treasures owned belonging to humanity.
2.Shakespeare’s tragedies Each of his four great tragedies: Hamlet, King Lear, Othello and Macbeth portrays some noble figure caught in a difficult situation, when some weakness, or bias of his nature is exposed. Upon his action depends not only his own fate, but that of an entire nation.
3.Shakespeare’s comedies a mood of youth, love, and ideals of happiness in his comedies heroes and heroines usually young men and women fighting against destiny itself and mould their own fate general spirit of optimism in accordance with the humanist spirit of Renaissance period and the writer’s youthful mind
4.Shakespeare’s achievements Social significance of his plays Art of his plays 1. unforgettable characterization 2. masterful plot construction 3. masterly use of language