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THE ROLE AND USE OF MILITARY HISTORY. Integrate Historical Awareness and Critical Thinking Skills Derived from Military History Methodologies into the.

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Presentation on theme: "THE ROLE AND USE OF MILITARY HISTORY. Integrate Historical Awareness and Critical Thinking Skills Derived from Military History Methodologies into the."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE ROLE AND USE OF MILITARY HISTORY

2 Integrate Historical Awareness and Critical Thinking Skills Derived from Military History Methodologies into the Training and Education of Self And Subordinate Leaders

3 What is Military History? The record of all activities of all armed forces (including armies, navies, and air forces) in war and peace.

4 WHY DO YOU STUDY MILITARY HISTORY?

5 HOW DO YOU STUDY MILITARY HISTORY? VERY CAREFULLY AND METHODICALLY

6 Activities Included in the Study of Military History u Battles & Campaigns u Strategy & Tactics u Doctrine & Training u Organizations u Logistics u Military & Society u Weapons & Technology u Military Leaders

7 STUDY CAUSE AND EFFECT TO DIRECT AND CONTROL FUTURE EVENTS

8 STUDY: IN WIDTH OBSERVE EVENTS OVER A LONG PERIOD OF TIME TO OBSERVE CHANGE

9 STUDY: IN DEPTH STUDY IN ENOUGH DETAIL TO GET BEHIND ANY GENERALIZATIONS

10 Using Military History u Learn from past experience u Understand military concepts u Study lives of soldiers in the past u Understand doctrinal evolution u Broaden knowledge of military subjects u Understand leadership issues u Learn about strategy & tactics

11 STUDY: IN CONTEXT ARMIES REFLECT BOTH THEIR ERA AND THEIR SOCIETY

12 “I am convinced that much more emphasis should be placed on history. The purpose of history is to learn how human beings react when exposed to the danger of wounds or death...” General George S. Patton, Jr.

13 “Nothing is done in war, except by calculation. Every enterprise should be conducted according to a system. Chance alone can never bring success.” Napoleon

14 “A man’s greatest pleasure is to defeat his enemies, to drive them before him, to take from them that which they possessed, to see those whom they cherished in tears, to ride their horses, to hold their wives. I forbid you to show mercy to my enemies. Leave nothing but uninhabited ruins, neither a cat nor a dog.” Genghis Khan

15 HISTORY SHARPENS JUDGMENT Critical Thinking Skills- Based on Study of Operational Military History

16 HISTORY IMPROVES PERCEPTION Critical Thinking Skills- Based on Study of Institutional Military History

17 HISTORY BROADENS PERSPECTIVES Critical Thinking Skills- Based on Study of Biographical Military History

18 Misusing Military History u History provides understanding, not proof. u History provides insight, not analogy.

19 METHODOLOGIES u The Ten Threads of Continuity. u Battle Analysis.

20 TEN THREADS OF CONTINUITY 19TH CENTURY

21 u Military Theory & Doctrine > u Military Professionalism > u Generalship > u Strategy > u Tactics > u Logistics > u Technology > u Political Factors > u Social Factors > u Economic Factors >

22 Military Theory & Doctrine u Ideas about War. u Doctrine = Generally accepted body of practices that govern Organization, Training, and Fighting. u Military Theorists: Those who THINK deeply about war and INFLUENCE others. They SEEK solutions, CREATE frameworks & ADVANCE new concepts.

23 Military Doctrine u PROVIDES THE BRIDGE BETWEEN THE CONCEPT OR IDEA AND THE ACTUAL APPLICATION OF THE IDEA

24 Military Professionalism u Attitude or state of mind. u Military professional is an expert in the management of violence. u Functions of the professional army include organizing, equipping, training, planning and directing forces, in and out of combat.

25 Military Professionalism – Military Professionals share a body of specialized knowledge. – The study of Military History is essential to Military Professionalism. – Defined in Samuel Huntington’s The Soldier and the State. F Expertise: F Responsibility: F Corporateness :

26 Generalship u Art of command high levels. u Functions include Forming, Organizing, Equipping, and Training armies and/or major portions of them. u Involves the detailed Strategical, Tactical and Logistical planning to insure success of the mission. Entails Leadership and Management.

27 Strategy u Preparation for and the waging of war. u Dynamic in nature and has evolved with the complexities of weapon technology. u Grand Strategy: Coalition level u National Strategy: Similar to Grand u Military Strategy: Derived from National.

28 Tactics u The Preparation and actual conduct of Combat on the battlefield. u The employment of units in combat, the ordered arrangement and maneuver of units in relation to each other to utilize their full potential. u Close connection with Technology, Logistics and Strategy.

29 Logistics & Administration u Supply, Transportation, Evacuation and Hospitalization, Service and Personnel Management. u Relationship between the state’s Economic capacity and its capability for supporting military forces. u In the last century has developed into one of the dominant factors of warfare.

30 Technology u The Application of science to war. u Accounts for new weapons and the entire range of new equipment. u The Industrial Revolution caused whole chains of technological advances in the fields of weapons, transportation, communication, construction and medicine.

31 Political Factors u Characteristic elements or actions of governments that affect warfare. u Provide the forces and trends that shape warfare and the goals for which wars are fought. u Difficult to distinguish the military objective from the political goal. Often political goals drive military goals.

32 Social Factors u Human relationships that affect warfare are social factors. u Includes concepts, such as, popular attitudes, revolution, militarism, psychological warfare, amd combat psychology. u Combatants have aimed at inflicting Total War on a nation’s people.

33 Economic Factors u Elements that affect warfare, such as, Production, Distribution, and Consumption of the resources of the state. u Economic warfare possible through blockade. u Different types of economies affect warfare.

34 Interrelationship of Factors u Political, Social and Economic Factors are all interrelated. u They are so complex that studying each one separately is impossible. u These forces provide the foundation of national power.

35 OUR ONLY VERIFIED DATA ON COMBAT COMES FROM HISTORY.

36 TIDY SOLUTIONS TO BATTLE ON COMPUTER PRINTOUTS IS A DELUSION- HISTORICALLY ALL WARS WERE VERY UNTIDY.

37 MILITARY HISTORY PROVIDES THE ARMY’S INSTITUTIONAL MEMORY.

38 MILITARY HISTORY PROVIDES A GUIDE TO HOW TROOPS BEHAVE IN BATTLE.

39 THE PRINCIPLES OF WAR PROVIDE A SENSE OF DIRECTION.

40 MILITARY HISTORY REVEALS THE PATTERNS, TRENDS & RELATIONSHIPS NECESSARY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF DOCTRINE.

41 DOCTRINE PROVIDES THE BRIDGE BETWEEN THE CONCEPT OR THEORY AND THE APPLICATION OF THAT THEORY.

42 THE ROLE OF MILITARY HISTORY IS TO PROVIDE A METHOD TO LOOK BACK IN ORDER TO LOOK AHEAD.

43 BATTLE ANALYSIS

44 TASK Integrate Historical Awareness and Critical Thinking Skills Derived from Military History Methodologies into the Training and Education of Self and Subordinate Leaders. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE Apply knowledge of military history and battle analysis to the professional development of self and subordinate leaders.

45 BATTLE ANALYSIS

46 Role and Use LTG George S. Patton, Jr.: “To be a successful soldier, you must know history.”

47 Role and Use u Learn from past experience u Understand military concepts u Study lives of soldiers in the past u Understand doctrinal evolution u Broaden knowledge of military subjects u Understand leadership issues u Learn about strategy & tactics Using Military History

48 Basic Battle Analysis Military History and the Conduct of Battle

49 Basic Battle Analysis What is Battle Analysis? A method used by the U.S. Army to provide a systematic approach to the study of battles, campaigns, and other operations.

50 Basic Battle Analysis u Define the subject. u Set the stage. u Describe the action. u Draw lessons and insights. Battle Analysis Steps

51 Basic Battle Analysis Battle Analysis: Step 1 -- Define the Subject

52 Basic Battle Analysis u Pick a subject appropriate to the level of operations of interest. u Select a topic related to the types of lessons desired. Battle Analysis: Step 1--Define the Subject (what, where, when, who)

53 Basic Battle Analysis u Quantity and type of sources (books, articles, and other). u Quality of sources (content, bias, and intent). Battle Analysis: Step 1--Define the Subject (determine sources)

54 BATTLE ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY STEP I EVALUATE THE HISTORICAL RESOURCES u Determine the research sources u Evaluate the research sources

55 Basic Battle Analysis Battle Analysis: Step 2 -- Set the Stage

56 Basic Battle Analysis u Type of conflict. u Objectives of the principal antagonists. u Military systems. u Previous experience of forces. Battle Analysis: Step 2--Set the Stage-- Strategic Factors

57 Basic Battle Analysis u Context u Objectives u Additional factors (alliances, tactics, doctrine, and personalities) Battle Analysis: Step 2--Set the Stage-- Operational Setting

58 Basic Battle Analysis u Alternatives u Area of Operations u Weather u Terrain Battle Analysis: Step 2--Set the Stage-- Tactical Situation

59 Basic Battle Analysis Battle Analysis: Step 2--Set the Stage-- Compare Forces Size & composition Technology Logistics C3 Intelligence Doctrine & training Condition & morale Leadership

60 Basic Battle Analysis u State missions of opposing forces u Describe initial disposition of forces u Describe opening moves u Detail major phases u State outcome Battle Analysis: Step 3--Describe the Action

61 Basic Battle Analysis u Why did events turn out the way they did? u What is relevant about this study to current operations? Battle Analysis: Step 4--Draw Lessons & Insights

62 Basic Battle Analysis u Who won? Who lost? u What were the constants that affected the outcome? Battle Analysis: Step 4--Draw Lessons & Insights-- Cause & Effect

63 Basic Battle Analysis u Principles of War u Tenets of Airland Operations u Battlefield Operating Systems Battle Analysis: Step 4--Draw Lessons & Insights-- Military Lessons

64 Principles of War u Objective u Offensive u Mass u Economy of Force u Maneuver u Unity of Command u Surprise u Security u Simplicity

65 Dynamics of Combat Power u MANEUVER u FIREPOWER u PROTECTION u LEADERSHIP u INFORMATION


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