The Eastern Empire As Western Europe succumbed to the Germanic invasions, imperial power shifted to the Byzantine Empire (the eastern part of the Roman Empire).
A. Byzantine Empire Greatest Emperor: Justinian (527-565 AD) Handed classical learning and science back to the west --Justinian’s Code of Laws (533) Rebuilding program in Constantinople The Hagia Sophia (537) ( Church later turned into a Mosque.)
A. Byzantine Empire (cont) Justinian’s wife Theodora—life and influence Women’s rights
A. Byzantine Empire (cont) -- “Greek fire” --Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople (1453) Tension between the eastern and western churches over icons
The Imperial Goal: Unity The imperial goal in the East was to centralize government and impose legal and doctrinal conformity. One God One Empire One Religion
1 st Method: Law Justinian collated and revised Roman law. His Corpus Juris Civilis (body of civil law) had little effect on medieval common law. However, beginning with the Renaissance, it provided the foundation for most European law down to the 19 th century.
2 nd Method: Religion Religion as well as law served imperial centralization. In 380, Christianity had been proclaimed the official religion of the eastern empire. Now all other religions were considered “demented and insane.”
Between the 4 th and 6 th centuries, the patriarchs of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem acquired enormous wealth in the form of land and gold. Increase in Church Wealth
Increase in Clergy The prestige and comfort that the clergy enjoyed swelled the ranks of the clergy in the Eastern Church.
Independent Thinking Ideas thought to be heresies by the Roman Catholic Church received imperial support: Arianism denied that Father and Son were equal and coeternal. Monophysitism taught that Jesus had only one nature, a composite divine-human one. Iconoclasm forbid the use of images (icons) because it led to idolatry.
3 rd Method: Strong Cities During Justinian’s reign, the empire’s strength was its more than 1,500 cities. The largest with 350,000 inhabitants, was Constantinople, the cultural crossroads of Asian and European civilizations.
" Not since the world was made was there... so much wealth as was found in Constantinople. For the Greeks say that two-thirds of the wealth of this world is in Constantinople and the other third scattered throughout the world." --Robert of Clari, a French crusader who witnessed the pillage of the city in 1204, describing Constantinople. Don’t Write
Loyal Governors and Bishops Between the 4 th and 5 th centuries, councils were made up of local wealthy landowners, who were not necessarily loyal to the emperor. By the 6 th century, special governors and bishops replaced the councils and proved to be more loyal to the emperor.
Extensive Building Plans Justinian was an ambitious builder. His greatest monument was the magnificent domed church of Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom), which was constructed in just five years (53237).
B. Islam and the Islamic World The life of Muhammad (570-632 AD)—founded Islam The Qua’ran (Koran)— Muslim’s holy book Allah—Muslim name for God The notion of “jihad”- religious duty/struggle.
B. Islam and the Islamic World (cont) The five pillars of Islam Black Stone located in the Kaaba in Mecca, Saudi Arabia
B. Islam and the Islamic World (cont) Successors to Muhammad --Shi’ites vs. Sunnies Muslim intellectual and scientific achievements --ALGEBRA --the number “0” --calligraphy --calligraphy
Middle Ages 500-1500 AD Medieval Missionaries helped spread Christianity into northern Europe St. Patrick—monk who helped convert Ireland to Christianity Monks—religious men who lived apart from society in isolated communities Monasteries—communities of monks (strictly organized) Gave aid, ran schools, copied books
(3) The Carolingian Dynasty and Charlemagne Franks conquered Gaul (France)480s-Clovis Pepin the Short, the first Carolingian king (751) Pepin’s son, Charles the Great, or Charlemagne (768-814) helped the Franks reach their greatest power Charlemagne was a brilliant warrior and a strong king
(3) Charlemagne (cont) Crowned Holy Roman Emperor (Christmas Day, 800) This symbolized a return to the greatness of the Roman Empire Built schools, brought in great scholars Charlemagne’s palace city of Aachen
Feudalism originated partly as result of Viking, Magyar (Hungry), Muslim invasions Kings unable to defend their lands, gave land to their nobles Nobles had to find way to defend own lands Built castles, often on hills Not elaborate structures; built of wood, used as place of shelter in case of attackFeudalism originated partly as result of Viking, Magyar (Hungry), Muslim invasions Kings unable to defend their lands, gave land to their nobles Nobles had to find way to defend own lands Built castles, often on hills Not elaborate structures; built of wood, used as place of shelter in case of attack Origins of Feudalism
Knights (soldiers on horseback) were usually paid for their services with land. Land given to a knight for service was called a fief. Knight accepting fief, promising to provide loyalty and support to the lord, was called a vassal. Person from whom he accepted fief (land) was his lord. Lords were also vassals to the king. Historians call system of exchanging land for service the feudal system, or feudalism.
William the Conqueror William, the Duke of Normandy, decided to conquer England in 1066. He and his knights sailed into England and defeated the king near the town of Hasting. To reward his knights, he gave them large estates of land. This was the beginning of feudalism in England.
What is a Knight? What is a Knight? Almost all nobles (barons) were knights Training began at age 7, as a page, under the guidance of the lady of the manor Became squires at age 15 and were trained by other knights Those deemed worthy were “dubbed” knights Knights lived by strict codes of honor called chivalry
There were two groups of peasant workers on the manor Peasants (Freemen)- skilled workers who paid rent and could leave the manor whenever they wished. (They usually had a skill needed by others on the manor.) Serfs – workers bound to the land by contract with the nobles. (They had no freedom - they were the noble’s property but not actually slaves.) Workers on the Manor Workers on the Manor
Feudal Contract Feudal Contract GIVE SERVICE TO GIVE PROTECTION TO LORDS VASSALS
Daily Life in the Middle Ages The Castle—surrounded by a large estate called a manor Life in Middle Ages not easy, did not have comforts we have todayLife in Middle Ages not easy, did not have comforts we have today Early castles built for defense not comfortEarly castles built for defense not comfort Few windows, stuffy in summer, cold in winter, dark alwaysFew windows, stuffy in summer, cold in winter, dark always
Don’t Write Bedrooms In early castles, noble family bedrooms separated from main area by sheetsIn early castles, noble family bedrooms separated from main area by sheets Later castles had separate bedrooms; latrines near bedrooms (no indoor plumbing)Later castles had separate bedrooms; latrines near bedrooms (no indoor plumbing) Wooden bathtub outside in warm weather, inside near fireplace in winterWooden bathtub outside in warm weather, inside near fireplace in winter
Don’t Write Despite discomforts, life in a castle was preferable to life in a village. The typical village family lived in a small wooden one- room house. The roof was made of straw, the floor of dirt, and the furniture of rough wood. Open holes in the walls served as windows. The family rose before dawn. Men went to work in the fields; women did chores. During harvest, the entire family worked in the field all day.
Most families slept on beds of straw on floorMost families slept on beds of straw on floor All shared one room with each other, animalsAll shared one room with each other, animals Most glad to have animals to provide extra heat in cold winters =smallpox?Most glad to have animals to provide extra heat in cold winters =smallpox? Peasant families cooked meals over open fire in middle of floorPeasant families cooked meals over open fire in middle of floor Typical meal: brown bread, cheese, vegetables, occasionally meatTypical meal: brown bread, cheese, vegetables, occasionally meat No chimneys, house often full of smoke; fires commonNo chimneys, house often full of smoke; fires common