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Chapter 16 Section 2 The Foundations of European Exploration.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 16 Section 2 The Foundations of European Exploration."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 16 Section 2 The Foundations of European Exploration

2 Section review natural philosophers relied on religious teachings and classical Greek and Roman literature to explain what? natural philosophers relied on religious teachings and classical Greek and Roman literature to explain what? scientific method in which scientists believed no assumption could be trusted without repeat experimentation scientific method in which scientists believed no assumption could be trusted without repeat experimentation Ptolemy stated the universe was geocentric _____ ________ Ptolemy stated the universe was geocentric _____ ________ heliocentric is where the universe is centered around the ___ heliocentric is where the universe is centered around the ___ Newton’s work explained what laws? Newton’s work explained what laws?

3 Improvements in Technology The Europeans began trying to find new trade routes to the East to make trade easier The Europeans began trying to find new trade routes to the East to make trade easier Ptolemy had already began drawing maps that portrayed the world as round so people, not knowing about the Americas, believed they could reach Asia by sailing West Ptolemy had already began drawing maps that portrayed the world as round so people, not knowing about the Americas, believed they could reach Asia by sailing West New navigation instruments allowed ships to sail beyond the sight of land without getting lost. New navigation instruments allowed ships to sail beyond the sight of land without getting lost. European navigators learned that you could rub an iron on a lodestone and magnetize the iron. When they let the iron float on water it would point north European navigators learned that you could rub an iron on a lodestone and magnetize the iron. When they let the iron float on water it would point north

4 If Europeans were going to safely sail to the East they needed better ships. Ships were improved upon by adding sails and moving the rudder from the side of the ship to the rear for better steering and the ability to sail against the wind. Whereas before ships could only sail with the wind and people had to row if they were against the wind If Europeans were going to safely sail to the East they needed better ships. Ships were improved upon by adding sails and moving the rudder from the side of the ship to the rear for better steering and the ability to sail against the wind. Whereas before ships could only sail with the wind and people had to row if they were against the wind

5 Economic Changes During the Commercial Revolution Europe greatly changed basic economic practices During the Commercial Revolution Europe greatly changed basic economic practices {People could make $ by sharing in other businesses through joint-stock companies} in which owners raised $ by selling stock in the company. {People could make $ by sharing in other businesses through joint-stock companies} in which owners raised $ by selling stock in the company. Investors who bought stock became co-owners and shared in the profits Investors who bought stock became co-owners and shared in the profits These companies raised a lot of $ from investors to finance exploration These companies raised a lot of $ from investors to finance exploration Through colonization and exploration monarchs got rich and powerful through their conquests Through colonization and exploration monarchs got rich and powerful through their conquests

6 Mercantilism {Mercantilism states that a country’s government should do they could to increase their country’s wealth} {Mercantilism states that a country’s government should do they could to increase their country’s wealth} According to this belief there were 2 ways to build wealth. According to this belief there were 2 ways to build wealth. It could mine gold and silver It could mine gold and silver Or it could sell more goods than it bought from foreign countries which is called favorable balance of trade Or it could sell more goods than it bought from foreign countries which is called favorable balance of trade To achieve a favorable balance of trade a country could: To achieve a favorable balance of trade a country could: *Reduce the amount of goods coming in from other countries by placing tariffs on imported goods *Reduce the amount of goods coming in from other countries by placing tariffs on imported goods *Export already manufactured goods, wool clothes are worth more than raw wool. *Export already manufactured goods, wool clothes are worth more than raw wool. *Gaining control of overseas sources of raw materials and precious metals *Gaining control of overseas sources of raw materials and precious metals {The government would show its support of domestic industry by providing subsidies,} or grants of $, to make this possible {The government would show its support of domestic industry by providing subsidies,} or grants of $, to make this possible

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8 The Role of Colonies European powers aimed to colonize places that were rich in gold, silver and raw materials. European powers aimed to colonize places that were rich in gold, silver and raw materials. They then bought those materials from their own colonies so that the $ would remain with its own people They then bought those materials from their own colonies so that the $ would remain with its own people Most forbid their colonies to sell to other nations Most forbid their colonies to sell to other nations Many were also forbidden to buy from other nations or to manufacture goods of their own so they were forced to buy from their home country Many were also forbidden to buy from other nations or to manufacture goods of their own so they were forced to buy from their home country

9 Social Change Certain social changes also created the desire to explore and resettle Certain social changes also created the desire to explore and resettle As the population in Europe increased, towns became crowded {Colonization appealed to Europeans because it offered a chance to escape overcrowding and poverty} As the population in Europe increased, towns became crowded {Colonization appealed to Europeans because it offered a chance to escape overcrowding and poverty} Adventure, curiosity and the spirit of discovery also encouraged people to explore Adventure, curiosity and the spirit of discovery also encouraged people to explore Thousands were persuaded by tales and fables of extreme wealth in cities such as El Dorado Thousands were persuaded by tales and fables of extreme wealth in cities such as El Dorado Finally, the Reformation and Counter- Reformation had led to religious and political persecution. Many left seeking freedom Finally, the Reformation and Counter- Reformation had led to religious and political persecution. Many left seeking freedom

10 Section Review People could make $ by sharing in other businesses through what kind of companies? People could make $ by sharing in other businesses through what kind of companies? Mercantilism states that a country’s government should do they could to increase their country’s ______ Mercantilism states that a country’s government should do they could to increase their country’s ______ The government would show its support of domestic industry by providing subsidies which are what? The government would show its support of domestic industry by providing subsidies which are what? Why did Colonization appealed to Europeans? Why did Colonization appealed to Europeans?

11 We’ll end the presentation with more weird beards

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