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Multicultural Awareness Cultural Definitions versus Stereotypes & APA Division 16: Guides for working with diverse students Cultural Definitions versus.

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Presentation on theme: "Multicultural Awareness Cultural Definitions versus Stereotypes & APA Division 16: Guides for working with diverse students Cultural Definitions versus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Multicultural Awareness Cultural Definitions versus Stereotypes & APA Division 16: Guides for working with diverse students Cultural Definitions versus Stereotypes & APA Division 16: Guides for working with diverse students

2 Providing Psychological Services to Racially, Ethnically, Culturally, and Linguistically Diverse Individuals in the Schools ROGERS, INGRAHAM, BURSZTYN, CAJIGAS- SEGREDO, ESQUIVEL, HESS, NAHARI, and LOPEZ

3 Six Major Domains of Service Delivery  Legal and Ethical Issues  School Culture, Educational Policy and Institutional Advocacy  Psychoeducational Assessment and Related Issues  Academic, Therapeutic and Consultative Interventions  Working with Interpreters  Research  Legal and Ethical Issues  School Culture, Educational Policy and Institutional Advocacy  Psychoeducational Assessment and Related Issues  Academic, Therapeutic and Consultative Interventions  Working with Interpreters  Research

4 Legal and Ethical Issues  Know the legal precedents and case law.  Know legislation that protects civil rights  Know about immigration laws, residency, citizenship, and migrant families.  Know legislation and litigation regarding bilingual education and (ESL) and the effectiveness of bilingual education/ ESL  Are advocates for culturally diverse youths  Know to provide school-based services that will positively impact student growth.  Know the legal precedents and case law.  Know legislation that protects civil rights  Know about immigration laws, residency, citizenship, and migrant families.  Know legislation and litigation regarding bilingual education and (ESL) and the effectiveness of bilingual education/ ESL  Are advocates for culturally diverse youths  Know to provide school-based services that will positively impact student growth.

5 Meyer v. Nebraska (1923)  Supreme Court Decision  It is the parent’s duty to educate their child.  It is a violation of the 14th Amendment to forbid the teaching of foreign language in the school.  Supreme Court Decision  It is the parent’s duty to educate their child.  It is a violation of the 14th Amendment to forbid the teaching of foreign language in the school.

6 Brown v. Board of Education (1954)  Supreme Court Decision  Racial discrimination in public education is unconstitutional.  Rights to students are embedded in due process and equal protection under 14 th Amendment  Supreme Court Decision  Racial discrimination in public education is unconstitutional.  Rights to students are embedded in due process and equal protection under 14 th Amendment

7 Hobson v. Hansen (1967)  Supreme Court Decision  Schools cannot discriminate on the basis of race or socio-economic status  “de facto segregation by race and class, it should be clear that if whites and Negroes, or rich and poor, are to be consigned to separate schools … the minimum the Constitution will require and guarantee is that for their objectively measurable aspects these schools be run on the basis of real equality”  Supreme Court Decision  Schools cannot discriminate on the basis of race or socio-economic status  “de facto segregation by race and class, it should be clear that if whites and Negroes, or rich and poor, are to be consigned to separate schools … the minimum the Constitution will require and guarantee is that for their objectively measurable aspects these schools be run on the basis of real equality”

8 Mills v. District of Columbia (1971)  Supreme Court Decision  All children are to be provided publicly- supported, alternative educational services if necessary for them to be educated.  Though all seven children were African American, this case represented all children with disabilities, not just minority children with disabilities  Supreme Court Decision  All children are to be provided publicly- supported, alternative educational services if necessary for them to be educated.  Though all seven children were African American, this case represented all children with disabilities, not just minority children with disabilities

9 Guadalupe v. Tempe (1978)  U.S. Court Of Appeals, 9 th Circuit  Schools must provide bilingual-bicultural education to students based on rights give in the Civil Rights Act and the Equal Education Opportunity Act.  Only applied to 9 th Circuit area schools (because is not a Supreme Court decision)  U.S. Court Of Appeals, 9 th Circuit  Schools must provide bilingual-bicultural education to students based on rights give in the Civil Rights Act and the Equal Education Opportunity Act.  Only applied to 9 th Circuit area schools (because is not a Supreme Court decision)

10 Johnson v San Francisco (1971)  U.S. Court Of Appeals, 9 th Circuit  Schools are prohibited from planned segregation of minority students as well as acts resulting in unplanned segregation.  de jure segregation:not statutorily but manipulation of student attendance zones, school site selection and a neighborhood school policy, created or maintained racially or ethnically  U.S. Court Of Appeals, 9 th Circuit  Schools are prohibited from planned segregation of minority students as well as acts resulting in unplanned segregation.  de jure segregation:not statutorily but manipulation of student attendance zones, school site selection and a neighborhood school policy, created or maintained racially or ethnically

11 Lau v. Nichols (1974)  Supreme Court Decision  Children must receive instruction in their primary language if they cannot meaningfully participate in an English- only classroom.  “students who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education.”  Supreme Court Decision  Children must receive instruction in their primary language if they cannot meaningfully participate in an English- only classroom.  “students who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education.”

12 Diana v. State Board of Education (1970)  Diana addressed overrepresentation of non- English speaking students in M.R. classrooms.  When first tested, her I.Q. (in English-only) was 30.  When re-tested, her I.Q. (in her native language) was 80.  Result: Testing must be done in the child’s native language.  Diana addressed overrepresentation of non- English speaking students in M.R. classrooms.  When first tested, her I.Q. (in English-only) was 30.  When re-tested, her I.Q. (in her native language) was 80.  Result: Testing must be done in the child’s native language.

13 Aspira v Board of Education (1976)  U.S. District Court: Southern District Of New York Court Decision  Hispanic students and their parents are entitled to bilingual education of some sort when needed for the child to be educated.  Lau v. Nichols provided these rights and the Board of Education in New York was found in contempt for not following through.  U.S. District Court: Southern District Of New York Court Decision  Hispanic students and their parents are entitled to bilingual education of some sort when needed for the child to be educated.  Lau v. Nichols provided these rights and the Board of Education in New York was found in contempt for not following through.

14 Hudson v. Rowley (1982)  Supreme Court Decision  States need not provide additional services above and beyond those needed to adequately meet the child’s educational needs.  Sign-language interpreter not to be provided for a deaf student who is receiving an adequate education (based on school records) to meet her educational needs  Supreme Court Decision  States need not provide additional services above and beyond those needed to adequately meet the child’s educational needs.  Sign-language interpreter not to be provided for a deaf student who is receiving an adequate education (based on school records) to meet her educational needs

15 Larry P. v. Wilson Riles (1987)  9 th Circuit Court of Appeals  15 years to resolve  Moratorium placed that all IQ testing for purposes of placement was not allowed. Moratorium was lifted on all but testing for mental retardation.  IQ tests cannot be used in California to place children in classes for mental retardation because of perceived racial discrimination on the tests.  9 th Circuit Court of Appeals  15 years to resolve  Moratorium placed that all IQ testing for purposes of placement was not allowed. Moratorium was lifted on all but testing for mental retardation.  IQ tests cannot be used in California to place children in classes for mental retardation because of perceived racial discrimination on the tests.

16 Plyler vs. Doe (1982)  Prohibit public schools from denying FAPE to a child regardless of immigrant status.  Undocumented students are required to attend school.  Schools are PROHIBITED from communicating with INS without a court order/ subpoena.  Prohibit public schools from denying FAPE to a child regardless of immigrant status.  Undocumented students are required to attend school.  Schools are PROHIBITED from communicating with INS without a court order/ subpoena.

17 History: Parent’s Rights  Before legislation & litigation many schools forbid students with disabilities from attending  Most early attempts to educate disabled children were from White parents, minority parents were still trying to get an equal education for their children.  Parental advocacy for their children took place in the form of litigation and lobbying  Before legislation & litigation many schools forbid students with disabilities from attending  Most early attempts to educate disabled children were from White parents, minority parents were still trying to get an equal education for their children.  Parental advocacy for their children took place in the form of litigation and lobbying

18 History: Minority Parents  Prior to desegregation, minority families were considered active in their children’s schools. Many felt unwelcome in their child’s new schools.  Minority parents advocated for their children to receive an equal education by arguing against segregation (intentional and de jure).  Many felt that this segregation continued by the overrepresentation of their children in SPED placement  Prior to desegregation, minority families were considered active in their children’s schools. Many felt unwelcome in their child’s new schools.  Minority parents advocated for their children to receive an equal education by arguing against segregation (intentional and de jure).  Many felt that this segregation continued by the overrepresentation of their children in SPED placement

19 Group Project: NASP Ethics  Go to the ethics section of the NASP website.   As a group, determine which ethical guidelines are described that specifically apply to school psychologists.  Be prepared to present these to the class.  Go to the ethics section of the NASP website.   As a group, determine which ethical guidelines are described that specifically apply to school psychologists.  Be prepared to present these to the class.

20 School Culture, Educational Policy & Institutional Advocacy  Take a proactive stance to enhance the quality of services provided to all individuals  Work toward increasing institutional understanding and acceptance of culturally and linguistically diverse individuals  Inform and educate school staff about cultural and behavioral patterns of culturally and linguistically diverse populations  Families need to be informed of their rights and are meaningfully engaged in the discussions affecting their children.  Take a proactive stance to enhance the quality of services provided to all individuals  Work toward increasing institutional understanding and acceptance of culturally and linguistically diverse individuals  Inform and educate school staff about cultural and behavioral patterns of culturally and linguistically diverse populations  Families need to be informed of their rights and are meaningfully engaged in the discussions affecting their children.

21 School Culture, Educational Policy & Institutional Advocacy  Examine individual referrals w/in the context of the systemic patterns of how ethnically diverse students are treated at that school.  Rule out systematic factors as the cause of problems before doing an evaluation or intervention directly with the student.  Provide interventions to help schools that inappropriately identify diverse students.  Help develop primary interventions to aid all learners in the school.  Help link diverse families to the school.  Examine individual referrals w/in the context of the systemic patterns of how ethnically diverse students are treated at that school.  Rule out systematic factors as the cause of problems before doing an evaluation or intervention directly with the student.  Provide interventions to help schools that inappropriately identify diverse students.  Help develop primary interventions to aid all learners in the school.  Help link diverse families to the school.

22 Psychoeducational Assessment & Related Issues  Assessment is a comprehensive process which  impact of socio-cultural, environmental, political, experiential and language-based factors  may or may not include standardized testing  Consider cultural sources of information about students and search for culture specific confirming data.  Acknowledge the impact of second language/culture acquisition on the cognitive and socio-emotional development  Assessment is a comprehensive process which  impact of socio-cultural, environmental, political, experiential and language-based factors  may or may not include standardized testing  Consider cultural sources of information about students and search for culture specific confirming data.  Acknowledge the impact of second language/culture acquisition on the cognitive and socio-emotional development

23 Psychoeducational Assessment & Related Issues  Psychologists have expertise in conducting informal and formal language assessments and in differentiating a language disorder from second language acquisition  Psychologists have expertise in assessing the student ’ s biculturalism  Psychologists incorporate cultural and linguistic information in written reports  Psychologists have expertise in conducting informal and formal language assessments and in differentiating a language disorder from second language acquisition  Psychologists have expertise in assessing the student ’ s biculturalism  Psychologists incorporate cultural and linguistic information in written reports

24 Psychoeducational Assessment & Related Issues  Understand the limitations and pitfalls associated with the prescribed use of standardized instruments not normed or validated with the population being served.  Well versed in the psychometric properties of all instruments that they use.  Able to adapt existing assessment tools when necessary and report any deviations from standardization.  Keep abreast of new an better versions of tests devised for diverse students.  Understand the limitations and pitfalls associated with the prescribed use of standardized instruments not normed or validated with the population being served.  Well versed in the psychometric properties of all instruments that they use.  Able to adapt existing assessment tools when necessary and report any deviations from standardization.  Keep abreast of new an better versions of tests devised for diverse students.

25 Academic, Therapeutic and Consultative Interventions  Know research regarding the impact of cultural, ethnic and linguistic factors on the academic achievement of diverse students  Understand the needs of diverse children in terms of curriculum and instruction.  Develop expertise in multicultural counseling.  Demonstrate an awareness of an individual ’ s worldviews and sociopolitical experiences including the negative effects of racism, oppression and stereotyping.  Know research regarding the impact of cultural, ethnic and linguistic factors on the academic achievement of diverse students  Understand the needs of diverse children in terms of curriculum and instruction.  Develop expertise in multicultural counseling.  Demonstrate an awareness of an individual ’ s worldviews and sociopolitical experiences including the negative effects of racism, oppression and stereotyping.

26 Academic, Therapeutic and Consultative Interventions  Consider involvement of trained interpreters, community consultants, extended family members.  Implement culturally sensitive approaches that are researched and acceptable to the child or family  Demonstrate culturally sensitive verbal and nonverbal communication skills.  Aware of own cultural background and biases  Knowledge of minority family structures, hierarchies, values and beliefs.  Consider involvement of trained interpreters, community consultants, extended family members.  Implement culturally sensitive approaches that are researched and acceptable to the child or family  Demonstrate culturally sensitive verbal and nonverbal communication skills.  Aware of own cultural background and biases  Knowledge of minority family structures, hierarchies, values and beliefs.

27 Academic, Therapeutic and Consultative Interventions  Understand relocation and migration and its effect on children and families.  Understand the process of acquiring a second culture and its impact on the development and adjustment.  Understand the impact of poverty on physical and mental health.  Aware of different responses to interventions  Understand the specific coping skills and support systems available to culturally diverse children and families.  Understand relocation and migration and its effect on children and families.  Understand the process of acquiring a second culture and its impact on the development and adjustment.  Understand the impact of poverty on physical and mental health.  Aware of different responses to interventions  Understand the specific coping skills and support systems available to culturally diverse children and families.

28 Working with Interpreters  Psychologists seek the services of interpreters only when necessary and when other alternatives have been sought out but are not available.  Work with trained interpreters familiar with the student ’ s culture and regional area of origin.  Know how to train interpreters when needed.  Knowledge of the skills needed by qualified interpreters  Aware of problems inherent in the process of translation.  Psychologists seek the services of interpreters only when necessary and when other alternatives have been sought out but are not available.  Work with trained interpreters familiar with the student ’ s culture and regional area of origin.  Know how to train interpreters when needed.  Knowledge of the skills needed by qualified interpreters  Aware of problems inherent in the process of translation.

29 Working with Interpreters  Knowledge of the psychological impact of using interpreters during assessment and intervention activities.  Knowledge and skills in interviewing and assessing individuals through interpreters.  Examine data obtained through interpreters with extreme caution and acknowledge the limitations of such data.  Assessment results obtained through interpreters are described as such and are reported qualitatively.  Knowledge of the psychological impact of using interpreters during assessment and intervention activities.  Knowledge and skills in interviewing and assessing individuals through interpreters.  Examine data obtained through interpreters with extreme caution and acknowledge the limitations of such data.  Assessment results obtained through interpreters are described as such and are reported qualitatively.

30 Research  Informed about quantitative and qualitative research techniques.  Consider the social, linguistic and cultural context in which research takes place  Psychologists work to eliminate bias when conducting research.  Informed about quantitative and qualitative research techniques.  Consider the social, linguistic and cultural context in which research takes place  Psychologists work to eliminate bias when conducting research.

31 Research  Insure that the informed consent of all research participants is secured and has been elicited in the language the family is most comfortable with.  Skilled in program evaluation to determine the appropriateness and adequacy of instructional programs specifically aimed at diverse youngsters.  Insure that the informed consent of all research participants is secured and has been elicited in the language the family is most comfortable with.  Skilled in program evaluation to determine the appropriateness and adequacy of instructional programs specifically aimed at diverse youngsters.

32 Cultural Definitions Vs. Stereotypes

33 Stereotypes  Stereotypes are considered to be  Group concept of one social group about another  Often used in a negative or prejudicial sense  Frequently used to justify discriminatory behavior.  May express “folk wisdom” about social reality.  Stereotype production is based on:  Simplification  Exaggeration or distortion  Generalization  Presentation of cultural attributes as being 'natural'.  Stereotypes are considered to be  Group concept of one social group about another  Often used in a negative or prejudicial sense  Frequently used to justify discriminatory behavior.  May express “folk wisdom” about social reality.  Stereotype production is based on:  Simplification  Exaggeration or distortion  Generalization  Presentation of cultural attributes as being 'natural'. Wikipedia, 2006

34 Cultural Definitions  Should be scientifically based.  Represent many (but probably not all).  Provide a general idea of a culture  History  Beliefs  Daily Lives  Norms  Are objectively determined and reported (neither positive or negative)  Should be scientifically based.  Represent many (but probably not all).  Provide a general idea of a culture  History  Beliefs  Daily Lives  Norms  Are objectively determined and reported (neither positive or negative)

35 Psychs Need to Know…  How families are organized in different cultures.  Educational systems in other locations.  What recent events may cause distress in a child or family.  Languages spoken by the child.  Gestures, greetings, etc.  Views toward healthcare or psych services.  Anything else on Div. 16 Guidelines  How families are organized in different cultures.  Educational systems in other locations.  What recent events may cause distress in a child or family.  Languages spoken by the child.  Gestures, greetings, etc.  Views toward healthcare or psych services.  Anything else on Div. 16 Guidelines

36 CultureGrams  You can get much of the information that you need from Culture Grams (www.culturegrams.com).  At UNLV we access Culture Grams by:  Note: Not all that you need to know can be accessed here. Sometimes you will need alternate sources.  Natives from that Country  Current Newspapers  Literature Reviews, etc.  You can get much of the information that you need from Culture Grams (www.culturegrams.com).  At UNLV we access Culture Grams by:  Note: Not all that you need to know can be accessed here. Sometimes you will need alternate sources.  Natives from that Country  Current Newspapers  Literature Reviews, etc.

37 Discussion Project: CultureGrams  Scenario 1:  You have a female child from Peru  Scenario 2:  You have a male child from Saudi Arabia  Scenario 1:  You have a female child from Peru  Scenario 2:  You have a male child from Saudi Arabia  Scenario 3:  You have a female child from Canada  Scenario 4:  You have a male child from Chad Use at least one of these scenarios to discuss information on CultureGrams in terms of psychological, family, and educational issues.


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