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Ratifying the Constitution. Ratifying Process 9 of thirteen states need to ratify (agree) –Ratified at state conventions, not legislatures –State legs.

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Presentation on theme: "Ratifying the Constitution. Ratifying Process 9 of thirteen states need to ratify (agree) –Ratified at state conventions, not legislatures –State legs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ratifying the Constitution

2 Ratifying Process 9 of thirteen states need to ratify (agree) –Ratified at state conventions, not legislatures –State legs. Might fear losing power, and vote no. New Hampshire is 9 th State to ratify NY and VA don’t agree immediately –Big, populated states –Const. would probably fail w/out them 1789: Constitution goes into effect –NC (1788) & RI (1790) are last to ratify after disagreeing at first.

3 Federalists (favor Const.) Favor a strong national government. Argue checks and balances prevent one branch from too much power Strong Gov needed to: –Facilitate interstate and foreign trade –National defense –Foreign relations (war, treaties) Bill of Rights not needed: –Const. protected rights (people govern selves) –Most states already had basic bill of rights

4 Anti-Federalists (oppose Const.) In favor of strong state governments. Believe national gov would take power from states. National Bill of Rights is necessary. –Forced Federalists to agree this would be Congress’ first task.

5 Federalist Papers Written to win approval on Const. in NY –Authors: J. Madison, A. Hamilton, & John Jay Recognized as the most sophisticated explanation of American political system. –#’s 10. & 84 are the most important/famous Argued: –A republic could survive in a territory as big as the USA because political factions (group) would check each others power. –National gov more important than states, but only in areas where Const. gives it power.

6 Why the Federalists Won 1.Widespread opinion that Articles of Confederation are bad. (Shay’s Rebellion) 2.Federalist had a plan (Const.) - Anti-Federalists had no plan. 3.Federalists had a national network to talk. - Anti-Feds were scattered state & local politicians 4.George Washington is a Federalist - He chaired the Const. Convention - Wasn’t power hungry - Everyone knew him, and knew he’d be 1 st President. 5.Federalist Papers

7 Virginia’s Influence Virginia Declaration of Rights –By George Mason –Reiterated the notion that basic rights should not be violated by governments. Virginia Statute (Law) for Religious Freedom –By Thomas Jefferson –Outlawed the established church – that is, the practice of government support for one favorite church. Bill of Rights –James Madison –Consulted the above items when he drafted the Bill of Rights.

8 Bill of Rights First Ten Amendments to the Constitution –FYI: the 27 th Amendment too! Took effect in Protect certain basic rights of all citizens –Which means any white male who is old enough (and who usually has land).

9 1 st Amendment Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievance.Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievance.

10 2 nd Amendment A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.

11 3 rd Amendment No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by lawNo soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

12 4 th Amendment The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

13 5 th Amendment No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

14 6 th Amendment In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

15 7 th Amendment In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

16 8 th Amendment Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

17 9 th Amendment The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

18 10 th Amendment The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.

19 1 st 2 nd 3 rd 4 th 5 th 6 th 7 th 8 th 9 th 10 th

20 1 st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress. 2 nd 3 rd 4 th 5 th 6 th 7 th 8 th 9 th 10 th

21 1 st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress. 2 nd Right to bear arms (weapons) 3 rd 4 th 5 th 6 th 7 th 8 th 9 th 10 th

22 1 st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress. 2 nd Right to bear arms (weapons) 3 rd Restricts how federal government can house soldiers in citizens’ homes. 4 th 5 th 6 th 7 th 8 th 9 th 10 th

23 1 st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress. 2 nd Right to bear arms (weapons) 3 rd Restricts how federal government can house soldiers in citizens’ homes. 4 th Protects individuals against unreasonable searches and seizures. 5 th 6 th 7 th 8 th 9 th 10 th

24 1 st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress. 2 nd Right to bear arms (weapons) 3 rd Restricts how federal government can house soldiers in citizens’ homes. 4 th Protects individuals against unreasonable searches and seizures. 5 th Grand jury required; no self-incrimination; no double jeopardy; no taking of private property with compensation. 6 th 7 th 8 th 9 th 10 th

25 1 st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress. 2 nd Right to bear arms (weapons) 3 rd Restricts how federal government can house soldiers in citizens’ homes. 4 th Protects individuals against unreasonable searches and seizures. 5 th Grand jury required; no self-incrimination; no double jeopardy; no taking of private property with compensation. 6 th Right to a fair and swift trial. 7 th 8 th 9 th 10 th

26 1 st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress. 2 nd Right to bear arms (weapons) 3 rd Restricts how federal government can house soldiers in citizens’ homes. 4 th Protects individuals against unreasonable searches and seizures. 5 th Grand jury required; no self-incrimination; no double jeopardy; no taking of private property with compensation. 6 th Right to a fair and swift trial. 7 th Right to a jury trial in civil cases in federal courts. 8 th 9 th 10 th

27 1 st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress. 2 nd Right to bear arms (weapons) 3 rd Restricts how federal government can house soldiers in citizens’ homes. 4 th Protects individuals against unreasonable searches and seizures. 5 th Grand jury required; no self-incrimination; no double jeopardy; no taking of private property with compensation. 6 th Right to a fair and swift trial. 7 th Right to a jury trial in civil cases in federal courts. 8 th Protects against cruel & unusual punishment and excessive bail. 9 th 10 th

28 1 st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress. 2 nd Right to bear arms (weapons) 3 rd Restricts how federal government can house soldiers in citizens’ homes. 4 th Protects individuals against unreasonable searches and seizures. 5 th Grand jury required; no self-incrimination; no double jeopardy; no taking of private property with compensation. 6 th Right to a fair and swift trial. 7 th Right to a jury trial in civil cases in federal courts. 8 th Protects against cruel & unusual punishment and excessive bail. 9 th Establishes people have rights beyond those stated in the Constitution. 10 th

29 1 st Freedom of speech, press, assembly, petition, and redress. 2 nd Right to bear arms (weapons) 3 rd Restricts how federal government can house soldiers in citizens’ homes. 4 th Protects individuals against unreasonable searches and seizures. 5 th Grand jury required; no self-incrimination; no double jeopardy; no taking of private property with compensation. 6 th Right to a fair and swift trial. 7 th Right to a jury trial in civil cases in federal courts. 8 th Protects against cruel & unusual punishment and excessive bail. 9 th Establishes people have rights beyond those stated in the Constitution. 10 th All powers not given to feds or denied to the states are held by each state, or the people.

30 # of states needing to ratify to make Const law. Group that opposed the Constitution. Group that supported the Constitution. Favored national gov. Favored state govs. Wanted Bill of Rights Did not want Bill of Rights

31 # of states needing to ratify to make Const law. Nine Group that opposed the Constitution. Group that supported the Constitution. Favored national gov. Favored state govs. Wanted Bill of Rights Did not want Bill of Rights

32 # of states needing to ratify to make Const law. Nine Group that opposed the Constitution. Anti-Federalists Group that supported the Constitution. Favored national gov. Favored state govs. Wanted Bill of Rights Did not want Bill of Rights

33 # of states needing to ratify to make Const law. Nine Group that opposed the Constitution. Anti-Federalists Group that supported the Constitution. Federalists Favored national gov. Favored state govs. Wanted Bill of Rights Did not want Bill of Rights

34 # of states needing to ratify to make Const law. Nine Group that opposed the Constitution. Anti-Federalists Group that supported the Constitution. Federalists Favored national gov.Federalists Favored state govs. Wanted Bill of Rights Did not want Bill of Rights

35 # of states needing to ratify to make Const law. Nine Group that opposed the Constitution. Anti-Federalists Group that supported the Constitution. Federalists Favored national gov.Federalists Favored state govs.Anti-Federalists Wanted Bill of Rights Did not want Bill of Rights

36 # of states needing to ratify to make Const law. Nine Group that opposed the Constitution. Anti-Federalists Group that supported the Constitution. Federalists Favored national gov.Federalists Favored state govs.Anti-Federalists Wanted Bill of RightsAnti-Federalists Did not want Bill of Rights

37 # of states needing to ratify to make Const law. Nine Group that opposed the Constitution. Anti-Federalists Group that supported the Constitution. Federalists Favored national gov.Federalists Favored state govs.Anti-Federalists Wanted Bill of RightsAnti-Federalists Did not want Bill of Rights Federalists

38 Authored the Federalist Papers Most Important Federalist VA law that protected basic human rights VA law that forbid gov. support of one religion He drafted the Bill of Rights 1 st Ten Amendments to the Constitution. 2 nd Amendment Right

39 Authored the Federalist PapersMadison, Hamilton, & Jay Most Important Federalist VA law that protected basic human rights VA law that forbid gov. support of one religion He drafted the Bill of Rights 1 st Ten Amendments to the Constitution. 2 nd Amendment Right

40 Authored the Federalist PapersMadison, Hamilton, & Jay Most Important Federalist George Washington VA law that protected basic human rights VA law that forbid gov. support of one religion He drafted the Bill of Rights 1 st Ten Amendments to the Constitution. 2 nd Amendment Right

41 Authored the Federalist PapersMadison, Hamilton, & Jay Most Important Federalist George Washington VA law that protected basic human rights VA Declaration of Rights VA law that forbid gov. support of one religion He drafted the Bill of Rights 1 st Ten Amendments to the Constitution. 2 nd Amendment Right

42 Authored the Federalist PapersMadison, Hamilton, & Jay Most Important Federalist George Washington VA law that protected basic human rights VA Declaration of Rights VA law that forbid gov. support of one religion VA Statue for Religious Freedom He drafted the Bill of Rights 1 st Ten Amendments to the Constitution. 2 nd Amendment Right

43 Authored the Federalist PapersMadison, Hamilton, & Jay Most Important Federalist George Washington VA law that protected basic human rights VA Declaration of Rights VA law that forbid gov. support of one religion VA Statue for Religious Freedom He drafted the Bill of Rights James Madison 1 st Ten Amendments to the Constitution. 2 nd Amendment Right

44 Authored the Federalist PapersMadison, Hamilton, & Jay Most Important Federalist George Washington VA law that protected basic human rights VA Declaration of Rights VA law that forbid gov. support of one religion VA Statue for Religious Freedom He drafted the Bill of Rights James Madison 1 st Ten Amendments to the Constitution. Bill of Rights 2 nd Amendment Right

45 Authored the Federalist PapersMadison, Hamilton, & Jay Most Important Federalist George Washington VA law that protected basic human rights VA Declaration of Rights VA law that forbid gov. support of one religion VA Statue for Religious Freedom He drafted the Bill of Rights James Madison 1 st Ten Amendments to the Constitution. Bill of Rights 2 nd Amendment Right Right to bear arms


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