2In the beginning was Nun, the Great Waters of the Unmanifest
3surrounding the Great Egg of the Creator In the NUN swam the Ogdoad, eight primordial gods serpents and 4 frogs -- Heh and Hehet, Kek and Keket, Nun and Nune, Amon and Amonetsurrounding the Great Egg of the Creator
4When the Egg split into two halves, the Waters of the Nun were separated, making a Space into which the Creator could fashion the world. From the egg arose a single blue Lotus. As it rose above the Darkness of the Abyss, the great petals opened, revealing the Creator God, Amon-Re. Light streamed from the body of the Divine Child, banishing Darkness to the far reaches of the Universe.
5He arose, uttering a Cry that shattered the Eternal Silence He arose, uttering a Cry that shattered the Eternal Silence. This was the First Sound- the First Word- and that Word was Thoth the Self-Created, the Logos, Wisdom.Light streamed from the body of the Divine Child, banishing Darkness to the far reaches of the Universe. Like a Phoenix with flaming plumage He arose, uttering a Cry that shattered the Eternal Silence. This was the First Sound- the First Word- and that Word was Thoth, the Self-Created, the Logos, Wisdom.Amon-Re constructed an island for Himself to rest upon, and He surveyed the Waters around Him. He knew that He was alone, and soon found He could not bear the solitude; He longed for others to share the Light with Him.Thus, He began to Create. This was Khephera, the God of Creation, the God of the Rising Sun. Re brought Order to the Ogdaod- setting Them in Their places- and thus the World came into existance. He accomplished this through the mighty Power of The Divine Word, Thoth, and the Power of that Word was Ptah, the Creator of the World and all of it's Creatures.The First Created was the Great Goddess Maat; Justice, Truth, the Judge and Balance of Dualities; for, Duality IS the Law of the Universe. Thoth took Her as His wife, and the Two sustain the Universe even unto this day; The Divine Word, and Truth.Amon-Re knew that He was alone, and soon found He could not bear the solitude.The First Created was the Great Goddess Maat: Justice, Truth, the Judge and Balance of Dualities; for, Duality IS the Law of the Universe. Thoth took her as His wife, and the Two sustain the Universe even unto this day:The Divine Word and Truth.
6His next act was to create more gods. He gave birth to his son by spitting him out. His daughter he vomited.Shu represented the air and Tefnut was a goddess of moisture.Shu and Tefnut continued the act of creation by establishing a social order.Shu contributed the 'principles of Life'Tefnut contributed the 'principles of order'.Atum-Re, the Creator
7SHU TEFNUT air moisture His next act was to create more gods. Because he was all alone in the world, without a mate, he made a union with his shadow. This unusual way of procreating offspring was not considered strange to the Egyptians. We find Atum regarded as a bisexual god and was sometimes called the 'Great He-She'. The Egyptians were thus able to present Atum as the one and only creative force in the universe.According to some texts the birth of Atum's children took place on the primeval hill. In other texts, Atum stayed in the waters of Nu to create his son and daughter. He gave birth to his son by spitting him out. His daughter he vomited. Shu represented the air and Tefnut was a goddess of moisture. Shu and Tefnut continued the act of creation by establishing a social order. To this order Shu contributed the 'principles of Life' while Tefnut contributed the 'principles of order'.NUT GEB sky earth
8Manifestations of the Sun ATUM or HORUS the old man the sun on the horizonRA-HARAKHTE winged solar-diskyouthful sun of the eastern horizon.Not surprisingly, the sun was also among the most important elements in the Egyptians lives and therefore had an important role as a creator god. His names and attributes varied greatly. As the rising sun his name was Khepri, the great scarab beetle, or Ra-Harakhte who was seen as a winged solar-disk or as the youthful sun of the eastern horizon. As the sun climbed toward mid-day it was called Ra, great and strong. When the sun set in the west it was known as Atum the old man, or Horus on the horizon. As a solar-disk he was known as Aten. The sun was also said to be an egg laid daily by Geb, the 'Great Cackler' when he took the form of a goose.the Egyptians the moon was any one of a number of gods. As an attribute of the god Horus the moon represented his left eye while his right was the sun. Seth was a lunar god, in his struggles with the solar god Horus, Seth is seen as a god of darkness doing constant battle with the god of light. We often find the ibis-headed god Thoth wearing a lunar creseant on his head.To the Egyptians the sky was a goddess called Nut. She was often shown as a cow standing over the earth her eyes being the sun and the moon. She is kept from falling to earth by Shu, who was the god of air and wind, or by a circle of high mountains. As this heavenly cow, she gave birth to the sun daily. The sun would ride in the 'Solar Barque' across Nut's star covered belly, which was a great cosmic ocean. Then as evening fell, Nut would swallow the sun creating darkness. She is also pictured as a giant sow, suckling many piglets. These piglets represented the stars, which she swallowed each morning before dawn.Nut was also represented as an elongated woman bending over the earth and touching the horizons with her toes and finger tips. Beneath her stretched the ocean, in the center of which lay her husband Geb, the earth-god.He is often seen leaning on one elbow, with a knee bent toward the sky, this is representive of the mountains and valleys of the earth. Green vegetation would sprout from Geb's brown or red body.KHEPRI scarab the rising sunCreatorRA mid-day sun father of the godsATEN solar disk
9Nut, the Goddess of the Sky, and Geb, God of the Earth, were filled with desire for each other. Knowing that the union of the heavens and earth made all things possible, Ra forbade their union.Disobedient, Nut and Geb came together.Furious Ra ordered Shu, God of the air, to divide them forever.
10To this day, the lonely earth reaches up, seeking to hold his beloved skyonce more.Attributes: Nut was originally a mother-goddess who had many children. The hieroglyph for her name, which she is often seen wearing on her head is a water pot, but it is also thought to represent a womb. During the day, Nut and Geb are separated, but each evening Nut comes down to meet Geb and this causes darkness. If storms came during the day, it was believed that Nut had some how slipped closer to the earth. She also plays an important role in creation mythology.Representation: As the sky goddess, she is shown stretching from horizon to horizon, touching only her fingertips and toes to the ground. Her husband, Geb is often shown reclining beneath her. She is also pictured as a giant sow, suckling many piglets. These piglets represented the stars, which she swallowed each morning before dawn. Nut was considered to be the mother of the sun and the moon. In some cases she took the form of a great cow who's eyes represented the sun and the moon.Relations: Daughter of Shu and Tefnut, twin sister of Geb, wife of Geb, mother of Osiris and Isis, Seth, Nephthys.Cult Center: Throughout Egypt.Attributes: Geb was thought to represent the earth, he is often seen reclining beneath the sky goddess Nut. Geb was called 'the Great Cackler', and as such, was represented as a goose. It was in this form that he was said to have laid the egg from which the sun was hatched. He was believed to have been the third divine king of earth. The royal throne of Egypt was known as the 'throne of Geb' in honor of his great reign.Representation: As a vegetation-god he was shown with green patches or plants on his body. As the earth, he is often seen lying beneath Nut, leaning on one elbow, with a knee bent toward the sky, this is representive of the mountains and valleys of the earth. He was often pictured with a goose on his head or as a goose.Relations: Son of Shu and Tefnut, twin brother of Nut, husband of Nut, father of Osiris and Isis, Seth, Nephthys.Other possible Names: Keb
11Ra forbid Nut to have children on any of the 360 days that currently made up the year. Nut asked Thoth, to help her...Thoth engaged the moon god Khensu,in a wager.Thoth was victorious and won one seventh of Khensu 's light. This is why the moon now wanes each month.Thoth took this light and added five days to the calendar.This gave Nut 5 days on which she could have children.On the first day, Nut gave birth to Osiris, Seth on the third, Isis the fourth, and Nephthys on the fifth day.At the time of Osiris' birth, a loud voice was heard all over the world, saying, "The lord of all the earth is born."
12NUT GEB SET NEPTHYS OSIRIS ISIS In the beginning, there was the mighty god Ra and his wife Nut. Nut was in love with the god Geb. When Ra found out about this union he was furious. In his rage, he forbid Nut to have children on any of the 360 days that currently made up the year. Nut was very sad. She called on her friend, Thoth, to help her. He knew that Ra's curse must be fulfilled, but he had an idea. Thoth engaged the moon goddess, Silene, in a wager. At the time, Silene's light (the moon) rivaled the light of Ra (the sun). Thoth was victorious, he was rewarded with one seventh of Silene's light. This is why the moon now wanes each month. Thoth took this light and added five days to the calender, bringing the year from 360 days to 365. This gave Nut 5 days on which she could have children, while at the same time obeying Ra's commandment. On the first of these days, Nut gave birth to Osiris. On the second day Horus was born, Seth on the third, Isis the fourth, and Nephthys on the fifth day. At the time of Osiris' birth, a loud voice was heard all over the world, saying, "The lord of all the earth is born."
18was jealous of the power He invited him to a feast. SETLord of Chaos and Evilwas jealous of the powerof his brotherOSIRIS.He invited him to a feast.Osiris was an earthly ruler, who was popular with his subjects. His brother, Set, was jealous of this popularity and plotted against Osiris. Set's plans to be rid of his brother started when he secretly obtained his brothers measurements and had a magnificent casket made to fit. This casket was in the form of a human shaped box. Set then organised a large feast to which Osiris and a number of others (usually given as 72) were invited. At the height of the festivities Set produced the casket and announced that it would be given to whoever it fitted. All the guests tried the casket for size, but none fitted until finally Osiris stepped into the casket. Set immediately slammed the lid closed and sealed the casket shut (with molten lead). The sealed coffin was then thrown into the Nile.
19Isis was determined to find her beloved husband Isis was devastated at the loss of her husband and searched for the casket throughout Egypt and then overseas. She eventually eventually found it where it had come to rest in the roots of a massive tree. Isis then returned the coffin to Egypt for a proper burial. For safe keeping she concealed it in the marshes beside the Nile. Unfortunately for Isis Set found the casket while out hunting and was so enraged he chopped the body of Osiris into pieces, and scattered the parts throughout the land of Egypt.
24Horus of Isis the and Son Osiris Poor Isis had to then set out again looking for the parts of her husband. Eventually she found all the parts except one and reassembled Osiris and wrapped him in bandages. In some accounts Isis breathed life back into Osiris' body and it was then that Horus was conceived. This was a more magical event that it seems, considering the one part of Osiris Isis couldn't find.
26Horus was brought up by Isis on a floating island in the marshes of Buto. The child was weak and in constant danger from the scheming of his wicked uncle Seth, who sent serpents and monsters to attack him.Harsiesis (Horus son of Isis) This Horus was the son of Isis and Osiris. He was conceived magically after the death of Osiris and brought up by Isis on a floating island in the marshes of Buto. The child was weak and in constant danger from the scheming of his wicked uncle Seth, who sent serpents and monsters to attack him. But his mother, Isis was great in the magical arts and she warded off this evil by using a spell against creatures biting with their mouths and stinging with their tails, and the young Horus survived and grew.The young Horus then went out to battle his uncle Set and to avenge his fathers death. After a series of fights detailed in 'The contendings of Horus and Set' neither god was able to secure an overall victory. Ultimately Osiris was declared king of the underworld,Horus king of the living, and Set ruler of the deserts as the god of chaos and evil.But his mother, Isis was great in the magical arts and she warded off this evil by using a spell against creatures biting with their mouths and stinging with their tails, and the young Horus survived and grew
27When Osiris rose from the dead, all growing things again became green and stirred to life
28life again. And so,he chose to become Lord of Otherworld, But Osiris knew that the growing corn must be harvested and its seed replanted in the ground to bring forthlife again. And so,he chose to become Lord of Otherworld,the patron andprotector of the Dead.
29The Mystery of OsirisAs the body of Osiris was first drowned, so the Nile floods Egypt to make it fertile.As his corpse was dismembered and scattered, so the seeds have to be scattered to plant the grain.As Isis called Osiris forth, so the earth harbors and nourishes the kernels until they sprout and grow in the sun.As Osiris chose to go the underworld and rule the dead, so the grain is threshed and winnowed and the seeds scattered in the earth once again.HorusGreek version of Egyptian HeruOne of the most important deities of Egypt. As the Child, Horus is the son of Osiris and Isis, who, upon reaching adulthood, avenges his father's death, by defeating and castrating his evil uncle Set. He then became the divine prototype of the Pharaoh.As Heru-Ur, "Horus the Elder", he was the patron deity of Upper (Southern) Egypt from the earliest times; initially, viewed as the twin brother of Set (the patron of Lower Egypt), but he became the conqueror of Set c BC. when Upper Egypt conquered Lower Egypt and formed the unified kingdom of Egypt.The pharaoh was considered to be the Living Horus, the temporal stand-in for Horus in the earthly domain. As the opponent of Seth (who, though initially an Upper Egyptian deity himself, later came to represent not only Lower Egypt but the desert surrounding Egypt), Horus is alternately a brother vying for the throne and unification of Egypt (Horus the Elder), or a royal heir come to reclaim his inheritance (Horus the Younger).
32The Judgement of the Dead rests on ... Cult Center: Throughout Egypt.Attributes: The goddess Maat represents the ideals of law, order, and truth. The word, Maat translates "that which is straight." it implies anything that is true, ordered, or balanced. She was the female counterpart of Thoth. We know she is a very ancient goddess because we find her in the boat of Ra as it rose above the waters of the abyss of Nu on the first day. Together with Thoth, they charted the daily course of the sun god Ra. She is sometimes called the 'eye of Ra' or the 'daughter of Ra'. Maat also plays an important part in the Book of the Dead. It is in the Hall of Maat the judgement of the dead was performed. This was done by weighing one's heart (conscience) against the feather of Maat. If a balance was struck the deceased was deemed to be worthy of meeting Osiris in the after life. If the heart of the deceased was found to be heavier then the feather of Maat it would be devoured by Ammut.Representation: A woman wearing a tall ostrich feather on her head. Or an ostrich feather.Relations: Daughter of Ra, wife of Thoth.Other possible Names: Mayet...the weight of a feather
33The Book of the Dead Confession of Dead Souls I have not done iniquity.I have not robbed with violenceI have not done violence.I have not committed theft.I have not slain man or woman.I have not made light the bushel.I have not acted deceitfully.I have not uttered falsehood.I have not defiled the wife of a man.I have not stirred up strife.I have not cursed the god.I have not behaved with insolence.I have not increased my wealth, except as with such things as are my own possessions.
37Abydos Passion Play c.2500 bce until the Christian era Ritual EnactmentAbydos Passion Play re-enacted the story of the death and resurrection of OsirisThe city of Abydos (ancient name: "Abdjw" ) flourished from the predynastic period (4000 BCE) of Egypt's history down through Christian times (about 641 CE). The site of many tombs of predynastic rulers of ancient Egypt, the area soon grew in religious importance as a cult center for Osiris, first during the Middle Kingdom,when such a tomb of a First Dynasty king, Djer, was identified as the "burial site of Osiris", the mythological god-king of the predynastic Egyptians (referred to as "Osirieon"). This emphasis upon Osiris caused the city to become a pilgrimage site, as well as a desired place for either direct burial or for the erection of cenotaphs (monument erected in honor of a dead person whose remains lie elsewhere). Festivals and the passion plays of Osiris' life and death were performed here from about the 12th Dynasty ( BCE) until the Christian era.One of the most significant monuments on the area is that of the Temple of Seti I, which is built to honor Osiris. It is believed that Seti's architects had planned a classic Egyptian temple of straight proportions, but had to change directions when foundation work accidentally uncovered the site of the Djer tomb, and its Middle Kingdom references as the site of Osiris' burial.* Possibly out of piety, the house of Seti I and Rameses II expanded and enhanced the Osirieon site, and the passion plays of the Osiris cult were tied into the Seti I temple thereafter.* This issue has been challenged in recent years, and thought now indicates that additions of chapels may have caused the temple plan change.Abydos
38Abydos Passion PlayStaging of Abydos Passion Play
39Ikhernofret's Description of the Osiris "Passion Play" at Abydos I did everything that His Person commanded, putting into effect my lord's command for his father, Osiris-Khentyamentiu, Lord of Abydos, great of power, who is in the Thinite nome. I acted as beloved son of Osiris-Khentyamentiu. I embellished his great barque of eternity; I made for it a shrine which displays the beauties of Khentyamentiu, in gold, silver, lapis-lazuli, bronze, sesnedjem-wood and cedar[?]. I fashioned the gods in his train. I made their shrines anew. I caused the temple priesthood to do their duties, I caused them to know the custom of every day, the festival of the Head-of-the-Year. I controlled work on the neshmet-barque; I fashioned the shrine and adorned the breast of the Lord of Abydos with lapis-lazuli and turquoise, electrum and every precious stone, as an adornment of the divine limbs. I changed the clothes of the god at his appearance, in the office of Master of Secrets and in my job as sem-priest. I was clean of arm in adoring the god, a sem clean of fingers.I organized the going forth of Wepwawet when he proceeded to avenge his father; I drove away the rebels from the neshmet-barque; I overthrew the enemies of Osiris; I celebrated the great going forth. I followed the god at his going, and caused the ship to sail, Thoth steering the sailing. I equipped the barque with a chapel and affixed (Osiris's) beautiful adornments when he proceeded to the district of Peqer. I cleared the ways of the god to his tomb before Peqer. I avenged Wennefer that day of the great fight; I overthrew all his enemies upon the sandbanks of Nedyt; I caused him to proceed into the great barque. It raised up his beauties, I making glad the people/tomb owners of the Eastern Desert, creating joy amongst the people/tomb owners of the Western Desert; they saw the beauties of the neshmet-barque when it touched land at Abydos, when it brought Osiris-Khentyamentiu to his palace; I followed the god to his house, I carried out his purification and extended his seat and solved the problems of his residence [...and amongst] his entourage."
40By the time of the Roman Empire, the Cult of Isis was established throughout theMediterranean World.She was theMother Goddesspar excellence.The sistrum is an attribute of Isis as the Queen of Heaven. According to Plutarch, "The sistrum shows that whatever exists ought to be shaken and never cease from movement, but should be aroused and agitated as if it were asleep and its life quenched. ... [B]y means of movement generation frees nature." (Goldsmith 207)The Knot of Isis, in the center of the X (Ions 70), represents the underlying unity of the four elements, the prima materia; esoterically this is identified with Light (Case 30-1), and the X cross is a monogram for LVX. The pendant ends of the Knot of Isis represent the tears of the moon, the healing dew of heaven (ros coelestis), the spirit, which is a universal agent of rejuvination and revitalization that gives life to the prima materia (Biedermann s.v. dew). Together the Dew and Cross (Ros & Crux) form a pentagram (inverted), which represents spirit uniting the four elements (cf. Crossley II, n).The throne is a symbol of Isis (ast, Auset) (Budge 79; Larousse 19), who is often shown wearing the cow horns and solar disk of Hathor (Ions 56-60) and carrying the ankh and papyrus scepter (Ions 56).
41The Temple of Isis was dedicated to the worship of the goddess from the Egyptian triad, a cult which was spreading throughout the Roman Empire. The cult of Isis was one of the most popular of the Mystery religions. The temple is entered by the street named after it, Via d'Iside. A high wall surrounding the temple hid the secret mysteries that were performed within. The brightly painted temple faced east and stood on a raised podium. The open cella held instruments and symbols sacred to the cult of Isis. Two structures with niches for statues of the goddess projected from the side. The main altar was next to the steps, and another altar held the remains of a sacrifice. Within the sanctuary was a cistern that held sacred waters of the Nile.According to inscriptions, a six year old, N. Popidius Celsinus, financed the rebuilding of the Temple of Isis after its destruction in the earthquake, and for his generosity he was accepted, without cost, into the town council. When the Temple of Isis was excavated in 1765, fish and eggs were found on a table. During the excavation, wall paintings, friezes, decorative objects, statuettes and symbols were removed to the National Museum of Naples.