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Higher Computing Computer Systems Computer Software.

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Presentation on theme: "Higher Computing Computer Systems Computer Software."— Presentation transcript:

1 Higher Computing Computer Systems Computer Software

2 What is an operating system The operating system is a program that controls the entire operation of the computer and devices which are attached to it Most of the OS is permanently stored on hard disk and loaded in to RAM when the computer is on

3 The bootstrap loader When the computer is switched on the initial part of the OS is loaded from chip (ROM) The bootstrap loader’s function is to load the rest of the OS from disk

4 The single user operating system A SUOS is only capable of being used by one person at a time The main functions of a SUOS are: Interpreting users commands (CLI) File management Memory management I/O management Managing processes Resource allocation

5 The Command Language Interpreter The CLI is the layer with which the user interacts in order to give instructions to the computer – it interprets user commands

6 File management The FMS is concerned with the efficient use of the computer’s backing storage devices and media The FMS holds the details of where each file (or part of) is held on the disk The FMS is also known as the Disk Operating System

7 Memory management The MMS controls where programs and data are placed in main memory The MMS keeps track of the total amount of main memory available and which programs and data are currently loaded

8 Input/Output management The I/OMS communicates directly with the peripheral devices The I/OMS handles the transfer of data between the peripherals and the processor

9 Process management – the kernel The kernel is the part of the OS which is responsible for managing interrupts e.g. from the printer The kernel is responsible for managing processes from the CLI e.g. copy. A process initiated by the CLI may result in an interrupt

10 Resource allocation RS is the way of managing which resource is available for use at any one time by a process Efficient RS ensures that the processor is kept busy, by maintaining a queue of processes that are always ready for the processor A “scheduler” prioritises the queue

11 The OS working - an example Loading the file “myfile” from disk Using the CLI you issue the command to open a folder The kernel interrupts the current CLI process and passes the request to the FMS The FMS requests the I/O system to read the disk’s catalog track and loads a list of file names The CLI allows the user to choose the filename “myfile” from the list The FMS passes the physical location of the file to the I/O system The I/O system loads the file from disk and hands it over to the MMS The MMS places the file in the main memory and you again have control of the computer

12 Utility programs UP’s can be part of the OS or a separate program Virus checker Disc editor Defragmenter Backup Emulators Converters, compressors and expanders Email and web filters

13 Virus checker A virus checker is a utility program which is designed to check a computer system for viruses A virus checker will then remove the virus Virus checkers have to be kept up to date in order to be effective against new viruses

14 Disc editor A disc editor allows the user to edit data directly on the surface of a disk DE programs incorporate automatic disk repair and data recovery functions Newer hard drives “smart drives” have their own software for which monitors the performance of the drive

15 Defragmenter Files are often split and saved on different parts of a disk This increases the time taken to access the file A defragmenter gathers all the free space on the disk together and reunites all the fragmented files that can be accommodated

16 Before defragmenting After defragmenting Used block unused block

17 Backup Backup software can help to automate the process of making regular backups Backup software can allow you to synchronise files between two devices or media When two copies of the same file exist on different media the newer copy will replace the older version

18 Emulators An emulator is a program that allows one type of computer to behave as if it was a completely different type A computer running emulator software will run much slower than the computer it is emulating Virtual PC allows apple computers to emulate Windows OS computers

19 Converters, compressors and expanders Converters change the format of a data file from one application type to another Compressors reduce the size of a data file Expanders decompress a compressed data file

20 Printer drivers A program that takes the codes in the document and translates them into the appropriate code for the printer in use

21 Email and web filters An email filter is software that monitors emails which are sent on a network The Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (2000) gives employers the right to monitor employees email A web filter monitors URLs and the content of web pages be accessed by the user

22 File formats Standard file formats have been developed to ease the transfer of data between software developed by different manufacturers e.g. text files - RTF Each type of application software has its own set of standard file formats e.g. JPEG used in photographic manipulation software

23 File formats - GIF Graphics Interchange Format For low resolution bit-map colour graphics 256 colours possible Compressed files Fast to load and transfer via internet Interlacing allowed Animations also possible GIF uses lossless compression

24 File formats – JPEG, MPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group Standard for still picture compression 16.7 million colours Uses lossy compression Typically achieves 10 to 1 compression with little perceivable loss in image quality Motion Pictures Expert Group Standard for moving pictures

25 File formats - TIFF Tag(ged) Image File Format For high resolution bit-map images Large files unsuitable for WWW Uncompressed Used by DTP, book and magazine printing

26 Matching software to tasks (1) Production of a multimedia catalogue Multimedia authoring package e.g. Macromedia Director Additional software for editing individual elements Video Audio Graphic Text And CD or DVD writing software

27 Matching software to tasks (2) Setting up a LAN in a school Modern OS capable of peer to peer networking Client server needs network OS software Database servers need specific software e.g. Microsoft SQL Database application such as Filemaker Pro are available in single or network versions

28 Matching software to tasks (3) Development of a school website Web page creation software with WYSIWYG page editing Additional software for editing individual elements Video Audio Graphic Text And Testing using a range of browser software

29 Software compatibility issues Software that works on a computer system is said to be compatible Issues that can affect the compatibility of the software are: Memory requirements Storage requirements OS compatibility

30 Memory requirements (RAM) If a system cannot meet the minimum RAM requirements to run the software the software will not run If there is insufficient RAM to hold the complete program then part of it will be stored on disk, virtual memory Running programs using VM will slow the program

31 Storage requirements Full installation - The amount of backing storage needed to hold the complete program after installation (and decompression) Minimal installation – The least amount of storage requirement needed to run the program, normally the installation CD is still needed to run the program

32 OS compatibility Three main OS used on desktops and laptops Windows Unix Apple OS Users need the correct version of software for the different OS Windows OS not always backward compatible

33 Viruses A virus is a program which can destroy or cause damage to data stored on a computer system A virus infects host files and is distributed along with them

34 Worm A worm is a virus that can make copies of itself and spread between computers without having to be attached to a file

35 Trojan horses A Trojan horse is disguised as another type of file

36 What viruses infect A virus may infect different parts of the computer system File viruses Boot sector viruses Macro viruses

37 File viruses File viruses attach themselves to files They add malicious code into the files Typical files that are infected are Windows OS files with.COM and.EXE extensions

38 Boot sector viruses All magnetic disks contain a boot sector The boot code can become infected with a virus and is loaded when the machine is rebooted Less common now that floppy discs are no longer in popular use

39 Macro viruses A macro virus infects documents e.g. spreadsheets or word processing documents A macro virus causes a malicious series of events once the document is opened The macro virus will also infect any new documents created by the same application

40 Virus code actions Virus act differently according to how they are programmed The action the virus may carry out when run include: Replication Camouflage Watching Delivery

41 Replication A worm can make copies of itself this is known as replication

42 Camouflage Mixed in with good code Malicious or false code is changed every time it runs to avoid detection Disguise the code so that it looks harmless All these techniques are used to avoid detection by anti-virus programs

43 Watching Sleeper virus lays in wait for a particular sign which will activate it A date or time or action Time bomb (triggered by a date) Logic bomb (triggered by an action)

44 Delivery The method used by the virus to enter the system Shared backing storage devices Connected to the internet Web pages Downloads Emails Email attachments

45 Anti-virus detection Anti-virus software detection techniques include: Use of checksum Searching for virus signature Heuristic detection Memory resident monitoring

46 Use of checksum (1) A checksum is a value calculated for a given set of data The answer to the calculation is the checksum It is used to check that data has been transmitted and received correctly

47 Use of checksum (2) The checksum is transmitted along with the data The receiving computer performs the same calculation and checks the sum If they are the same its ok If the don’t match the anti-virus software will issue a virus warning

48 Searching for virus signature Anti-virus programs can find viruses inside programs by scanning them for virus signatures A virus signature is a characteristic pattern in a file These files can then be disinfected Polymorphic viruses modify their code to avoid virus signature detection

49 Heuristic detection Detect viruses a heuristic or rule of thumb method Imprecise method although useful If it looks like a virus and behaves like a virus then its probably a virus Used to detect new viruses

50 Memory resident monitoring Anti-virus software that loads in to the computers memory on start up Monitors all programs and data loaded in to the computers memory Can slow down the processing speed of a computer as everything is checked for viruses

51 The End

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