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Introduction. System Administrator? 系統管理員 不只是 IT 管理別人 / 大家使用的系統

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction. System Administrator? 系統管理員 不只是 IT 管理別人 / 大家使用的系統"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction




5 System Administrator? 系統管理員 不只是 IT 管理別人 / 大家使用的系統

6 工作內容 裝機設定 / 更新 讓機器 / 系統不要掛 找問題 引進並整合新科技 寫文件 未雨綢繆 - 防災演練 資訊安全

7 工作需求 能力傾向 (aptitude) 快速上手複雜的東西 掌握東西如何運作 小心行事 把東西搞爆了可以很快救回來 溝通技巧 品德操守

8 參考資料 Unix and Linux System Administration Handbook Essential System Administration (O'Reilly) ysadm2011/ ysadm2011/ ( 有點舊 ) 我們絕對講不完 !!

9 UNIX Basics


11 Linux vs *BSD 教派問題 沒有誰比較好 發展模式不同 o 中央集權 o 各自為政

12 BSD FreeBSD, OpenBSD, NetBSD,.... Developed by Berkeley (B -> Berkeley) Kernel + base + boot loader +.... Ports/Packages

13 Linux Kernel Distributions o Debian/Ubuntu o Redhat/CentOS/Fedora o SUSE o Slackware o Gentoo Mostly packages

14 Root is God Root can do anything o Almighty Root can do anything o Protect it well o Be careful what you do o Always logout o Never login as root

15 Everything is a file Types o Regular o Directories o Links o Specials (devices) o Sockets o Pipes Similar interface for everything

16 Trees Everywhere Paths starts from / (root) Processes start from init (PID 1)

17 File System Structure /Root /homeUser homes /devDevice files /binBasic programs /lib*Basic libraries /sbinBasic system programs /usrPrograms/libraries /varSystem data storage /procProcess states /sysSystem states

18 File Permissions rwxOctal ( 八進位 ) r-4-read w-2-write x-1-execute / search rwx= 4+2+1 = 7 r-x= 4+1 = 5

19 File Permissions rwxrwxrwx 1 wens wens 182 Jun 28 16:13 test.c Others Group User

20 File Permissions Owner Group Others Check the first matching type only Check complete path

21 Path vs Inode Pathpoint in FS to access file Inodeactual file Multiple paths can point to same file o Hard link o Share metadata

22 Inode Metadata about a file o Permissions o Dates o Size o... Points to disk blocks with content

23 Basic Commands Know them well

24 Command Prompt Normal user $ _ Fancy wens@linux1:/home$ _ Root # _ Comment (in this document) ##

25 File/Directory ops cd mkdir rm mv ln cp chown chgrp chmod

26 man Manual Manpages notated as cp(1) 1 is section ## Lookup “cp” $ man cp ## to be precise $ man 1 cp ## to search for “XXX” $ man -k XXX

27 su Switch user $ su root ## Enter root password $ su ta217 ## Enter ta217 password

28 sudo Switch user and do something More controlled Enter your password $ sudo ls Enter your password run "ls" as root

29 ps List processes man ps for all options $ ps $ ps aux

30 find find something $ find /home -name wens ## search for file "wens" under /home $ find /home -exec ls -l {} \; ## search for files in /home and run ls -l {file} for each one

31 xargs Run a command with a list as arguments $ find | xargs ls –l # Similar to last find example

32 grep Look for lines in files containing a pattern Regular expressions! $ grep printf *.c ## look for lines in all.c files with printf

33 df Disk Free How much space is free? $ df $ df /home

34 du Disk Usage How much space is something using? $ du hello.c ## How large is hello.c $ du ~ ## How large are the files in my home? $ du -s ~ ## How large (total) is my home?

35 vi Vi/Vim Text editor $ vim $ vim hello.c $ vimtutor ## Tutorial!!

36 Vim modes Command mode commands (duh) Insert mode type and see Visual mode selection


38 Vim key commands d- delete from here to... c- change from here to... x- delete 1 (delete key) X- delete 1 (backspace) y- copy from here to... p- paste here P- paste before here r- replace dd- delete line yy- copy line /XXX- search for XXX

39 Vim commands :e xxx- open xxx :e! xxx- open xxx without saving :w- save :w xxx- save as xxx :q- quit :q!- quit without saving Combine! :wq- save and quit

40 回家練習 Vimtutor 工作站上熟悉指令 (chown, chgrp, su, sudo 除外 )

41 作業 最後一堂課是經驗分享 /Q&A 你想聽什麼 ?

42 大家 12 月見

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