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Course materials may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM. 5.1 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Unit 2 Installing Linux
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Unit Objectives After completing this unit, you should be able to: Prepare a system for installation Install Linux from CD-ROM
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Preparing a System for Installation Know your hardware. –CPU, memory, keyboard, mouse –Hard disks, CD-ROM players –Graphical adapters, monitor capabilities –Network adapters, IP addresses –Printers Is all your hardware supported? –Linux Hardware-HOWTO –Distributors Hardware Compatibility List –Hardware manufacturer –If unsure, just try it! Make space for Linux partitions.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Know Your Hardware Obtain information from: –Manuals –Windows Control Panel
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 master boot record partition table Windows Linux / Linux /home Linux swap hda1: First primary partition holds a Windows filesystem. hda2: Second primary partition is an extended partition and holds three logical partitions. hda5: First logical partition holds a Linux filesystem that will be mounted as /. hda6: Second logical partition holds a Linux filesystem that will be mounted as /home. hda7: Third logical partition holds a Linux swap space. hda: The first sector of the disk contains the MBR and Partition Table. Partitioning Theory Partitioning is necessary on Intel-based computers. Maximum of four primary partitions. One primary partition can be an extended partition. An extended partition can hold an unlimited amount of logical partitions (but the OS might pose a limit anyway).
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Partitioning Tools PartitionMagic –Commercial program from PowerQuest –Runs under MS-DOS and Windows –Can create/,resize/,move/, and delete partitions GNU parted –Can create/,resize/,move/, and delete partitions. –QTParted is a graphical frontend for parted. fdisk –Virtually every PC OS (Windows, OS/2, Linux) comes with a tool fdisk to create partitions for that OS. Disk Druid, YaST and others –Partitioning programs integrated in install program
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 PartitionMagic
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Installing Linux Boot system from bootable media. –All modern PCs can boot from CD-ROM directly. Must be enabled in BIOS –Otherwise, boot from floppy. Some distributions require additional disks. –Disk images are usually stored on the CD-ROM. After booting, install from: –Local CD-ROM/DVD –Local Hard Disk –Network
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Installation Steps All installation programs need to perform essentially the same steps: 1.Choose language, keyboard type, mouse type. 2.Create partitions. 3.Set up a boot loader. 4.Configure network. 5.Configure users and authentication. 6.Select package groups. 7.Configure X. 8.Install Packages. 9.Register. Order of steps might vary from distribution to distribution. Other steps might also be included. –For example, firewall, printers, sound
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Select Language, Keyboard, Mouse Select the language to be used during installation process. –Different distributions support different languages. Select the keyboard layout. –Different countries use different keyboard layouts. –Dead (compose) keys allow you to input accented or special characters such as é, ç, ß and so forth. Select your mouse. –A mouse can be connected using a PS/2, USB or serial connector. –If your mouse has only two buttons, you can emulate the third (middle) button by clicking both buttons simultaneously.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Install Class Some distributions have installation classes for typical users: –Workstation –Laptop –Server –... A custom class allows you to make all decisions yourself: –Packages to be installed –Various configuration options
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Disk Partitioning Linux installation requires you to create Linux partitions. At a minimum, create: Recommended: You might need or want to create other partitions: /usr /usr/local/var /tmp /opt/home /boot 100 MB min. / 1.5 GB min. swap 512 - 4000 MB
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Configure a Boot Loader A boot loader loads and starts the Linux kernel. Can boot other operating systems as well. –OS/2, Windows, BeOS,... –Give each OS a unique label Can be password protected. –Prevents users from passing boot parameters to Linux or booting any OS Should generally be configured in the MBR, unless another boot loader is used. Common Boot Loaders: –LILO: Linux Loader –GRUB: GRand Unified Boot Loader
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Configure Network Most distributions configure your network adapter as part of the installation process. –Ethernet –Token Ring You need the following information: –IP address –Subnetmask –Network address –Broadcast address –Hostname –Default router/gateway –DNS server addresses They can also be configured to use DHCP.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Configure Root and User Accounts root is the superuser of the system. –It can do anything. –It needs a strong password. –Do not use your system as root unless you need to! Most distributions allow you to add user accounts during installation, too: –Create a user account for every individual user that is going to use the system. Hint: You should enable shadow passwords and MD5 encryption if available for additional security.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Select Package Groups Most distributions have grouped individual packages in package groups. Only select the package groups you need on your workstation. Selecting individual software packages is usually still possible but tedious. –A typical distribution has over 1000 packages.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Configure X X (X Window System) is the graphical user interface of Linux. It needs to be configured for your system. –Graphical adapter –Monitor Most adapters and monitors can be autodetected. –If not autodetected, select manually or use a generic adapter or monitor Usually customization is allowed: –Resolution, Refresh rate –Color Depth Test settings if possible. If nothing works, skip X configuration.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Other (Optional) Installation Screens Some distributions offer additional installation screens: –Printer configuration –Firewall configuration –Sound card configuration –Modem configuration –Time Zone configuration Usually straightforward
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Installing Packages Installing packages might take 5 minutes to several hours –Most distributions provide a progress bar or total time indication or both –Some distributions provide some entertainment while installing. While installation is going on, various virtual terminals provide information on the progress. –Switch between VTs using Ctrl-Alt-F1, Ctrl-Alt-F2, and so forth. Feed additional CDs when asked for.
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Post-Install Configuration After installation has finished, your system reboots to activate the newly installed kernel. –SUSE performs the reboot during installation. For almost all Linux distributions, this is the only reboot that is ever required. After reboot, some post-installation configuration might happen: –Configure graphics –Configure sound card –Install documentation, updates, drivers –Create user accounts –Registration
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Checkpoint 1.True or False? Linux can coexist with Windows on the same hard disk. 2.Which of the following steps is not essential in the installation process: a.Create partitions for Linux b.Configure your printer c.Select your keyboard type d.Identify the packages to install 3.What is the best source of information about your hardware?
© Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 Unit Summary Having completed this unit, you should be able to: Prepare a system for installation Install Linux from CD-ROM
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