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Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition Chapter 3 Linux Installation and Usage.

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Presentation on theme: "Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition Chapter 3 Linux Installation and Usage."— Presentation transcript:

1 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition Chapter 3 Linux Installation and Usage

2 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e2 Objectives Install Red Hat Fedora Linux using good practices Outline the structure of the Linux interface Enter basic shell commands and find command documentation Properly shut down the Linux operating system

3 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e3 Installing Linux: Installation Methods FTP server HTTP Web server NFS server SMB server Virtual Network Computing (VNC) server Packages on hard disk

4 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e4 Performing the Installation: Starting the Installation Boot from first Red Hat Fedora Linux CD-ROM Largest problem is initiating a graphical installation –Disable framebuffer Framebuffer: Abstract representation of video adapter card hardware –Instead of direct communication with video adapter

5 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e5 Performing the Installation: Starting the Installation (continued) Figure 3-1: Beginning a Red Hat installation

6 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e6 Performing the Installation: Starting the Installation (continued) Press F2 at Welcome screen to get installation options Check media for errors prior to installation –Optional, but recommended

7 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e7 Performing the Installation: Starting the Installation (continued) Figure 3-2: Viewing installation options

8 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e8 Choosing the Language, Keyboard, Mouse, and Monitor Keyboard model and layout automatically detected Check “Emulate 3 Button” if mouse does not have third button Most monitors automatically detected –If not, try to locate on list of monitor models or use generic model with correct horizontal and vertical sync Incorrect monitor settings can damage monitor

9 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e9 Choosing the Language, Keyboard, Mouse, and Monitor (continued) Figure 3-4: Selecting an installation language

10 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e10 Choosing the Language, Keyboard, Mouse, and Monitor (continued) Figure 3-5: Verifying keyboard configuration

11 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e11 Choosing the Language, Keyboard, Mouse, and Monitor (continued) Figure 3-6: Selecting a mouse type

12 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e12 Choosing the Language, Keyboard, Mouse, and Monitor (continued) Figure 3-7: Verifying monitor configuration

13 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e13 Specifying the Installation Type Personal Desktop –GUI environment and common applications Workstation –Same as Personal Desktop plus administrative and network tools Server –Several server services Custom

14 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e14 Specifying the Installation Type (continued) Figure 3-8: Choosing an installation type

15 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e15 Hard Disk Partitioning Filesystems can be accessed if attached (mounted) to a directory Minimum of two partitions –Partition for root directory –Partition for virtual memory (swap memory) Area on hard disk used to store information normally residing in physical memory (RAM) Automatic or manual partitioning

16 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e16 Hard Disk Partitioning (continued) Table 3-1: Common Linux filesystems and sizes

17 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e17 Hard Disk Partitioning (continued) Figure 3-9: Choosing a disk partitioning method

18 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e18 Hard Disk Partitioning (continued) Different types of filesystems –Ext2: Used on most Linux computers –Ext3: Performs journaling –Vfat: Compatible with Windows’ FAT filesystem –REISER: Performs journaling Journaling: Keeps track of the information written to the hard drive Disk Druid: Graphical partitioning program

19 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e19 Hard Disk Partitioning (continued) Figure 3-10: The Disk Druid partitioning utility

20 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e20 Hard Disk Partitioning (continued) Figure 3-11: Creating a new partition

21 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e21 Configuring the Boot Loader Boot loader: Program started by BIOS ROM –Loads kernel into memory –Can also boot other existing OSs GRand Unified Bootloader (GRUB): Boot loader configured during Fedora Linux installation Dual booting: Choose OS to boot at startup

22 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e22 Configuring the Boot Loader (continued) Figure 3-12: Configuring a boot loader

23 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e23 Configuring the Boot Loader (continued) Boot loader usually resides on the MBR or on first sector of / or /boot partition Kernel parameters: Information passed to Linux kernel via the boot loader Large Block Addressing 32-bit (LBA32): Enables Large Block Addressing in boot loader –For large hard disks not fully supported by the BIOS

24 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e24 Configuring the Boot Loader (continued) Figure 3-13: Configuring advanced boot loader options

25 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e25 Configuring the Network and Firewall Figure 3-14: Specifying a network configuration

26 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e26 Configuring the Network and Firewall (continued) Will NIC be activated at boot time? Manual IP configuration –Set IP address, Netmask, host name, gateway, primary domain name space (DNS) Automatic IP configuration via DHCP Firewall prevents traffic from entering computer –Customize which traffic is allowed through

27 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e27 Configuring the Network and Firewall (continued) Figure 3-15: Configuring a firewall

28 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e28 Choosing a System Language and Time Zone Figure 3-16: Selecting additional language support

29 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e29 Choosing a System Language and Time Zone (continued) Figure 3-17: Choosing a time zone

30 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e30 Creating the Root User Authentication: Users log in via valid user name and password Configure two user accounts –Administrator account (root) Full rights to system –Regular user account

31 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e31 Creating the Root User (continued) Figure 3-18: Setting a root password

32 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e32 Selecting Packages Figure 3-19: Selecting packages

33 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e33 Installing Packages Figure 3-19: Package Installation

34 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e34 Completing the Firstboot Wizard Complete the installation –License agreement –Graphics settings –User accounts and authentication –Install additional software Log in with user account for daily tasks Shadow password: stored in separate DB from user accounts MD5: password encryption method

35 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e35 Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued) Figure 3-22: Setting the date and time

36 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e36 Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued) Figure 3-23: Configuring screen resolution and color depth

37 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e37 Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued) Figure 3-24: Creating a regular user account

38 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e38 Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued) Figure 3-25: Configuring user information

39 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e39 Completing the Firstboot Wizard (continued) Figure 3-26: Configuring authentication

40 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e40 Basic Linux Language: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel Terminal: Channel allowing users to log on to the kernel locally or across a network Shell: Transfers user input to kernel BASH Shell (Bourne Again Shell): Default Linux shell –Command line shell Linux allows multiple terminals, each with its own shell

41 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e41 Basic Linux Language: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel (continued) Figure 3-27: Shells, terminals, and the kernel

42 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e42 Basic Linux Language: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel (continued) Graphical Interface –Start GUI environment on top of BASH shell o –Or, switch to a graphical terminal e.g., GNOME Display Manager (gdm) From the local server, use key combinations to change to separate terminal Command-line terminal may be accessed from GUI environment Command prompt: –Root user: # –Regular user: $

43 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e43 Basic Linux Language: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel (continued) Table 3-2: Common Linux terminals

44 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e44 Basic Linux Language: Shells, Terminals, and the Kernel (continued) Figure 3-29: Accessing a command-line terminal in a GUI environment

45 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e45 Basic Shell Commands Commands: Indicate name of program to execute –Case sensitive Options: Specific letters starting with “-” appearing after command name –Alter way command works Arguments: Specify a command’s working parameters

46 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e46 Basic Shell Commands (continued) Table 3-3: Some Common Linux commands

47 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e47 Shell Metacharacters Metacharacters: Characters with a special meaning –e.g., $ Refers to a variable

48 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e48 Shell Metacharacters (continued) Table 3-4: Common BASH Shell metacharacters

49 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e49 Getting Command Help Linux distributions contain many commands Manual pages: Most common form of documentation for Linux commands –“man” pages –At command prompt, type “man” followed by a command name –Contain different sections Info pages: Set of local, easy-to-read command syntax documentation –At command prompt, type “info” followed by a command name

50 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e50 Getting Command Help (continued) Table 3-5: Manual page section numbers

51 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e51 Shutting Down the Linux System Table 3-6: Commands to halt and reboot the Linux operating system

52 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e52 Summary Most software information can be specified at installation –Network configuration and package selection should be carefully planned before installation CD-ROM–based installation –Easiest –Most common –Rarely requires installation boot disk

53 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e53 Summary (continued) Installation prompts for language, boot loader, hard disk partitions, network configuration, firewall configuration, time zone, user accounts, authentication, and package selection Users must log in to a terminal and receive a shell before they are able to interact with the Linux system and kernel

54 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e54 Summary (continued) From any type of terminal you can enter commands, options, and arguments at a shell prompt to perform system tasks, obtain command help, or shut down the Linux system The shell is case sensitive and understands a variety of special characters called shell metacharacters, which should be protected if their special meaning is not required


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