Presentation on theme: "1 Embedded system 2008/7/16 莊宜勳. 2 Outline What is Embedded System Embedded System Booting Process Setup Host/Target Development Host / Target Development."— Presentation transcript:
2 Outline What is Embedded System Embedded System Booting Process Setup Host/Target Development Host / Target Development Setups Develop Tool Building OS Application Porting Install an application Optimizing Application Issues Homework
4 Embedded System ? What Embedded System is a special-purpose computer system designed to specific functions. Where It can be found everywhere MP3 player, air condition, vehicle control system, and so on. How “We” often use linux-based operate system
5 The Scale of Embedded System Small-scale Low-power About 2 MB ROM, 4 MB RAM Medium-scale About 32MB ROM, 64MB RAM Perhaps with storage device EX: PDA, MP3 player Large-scale Power-full or multi-core Usually no resource constrain
6 System Layer Hardware Firmware Operating System Application Hardware Firmware Operating System Application Hardware Firmware Desktop computer Complex embedded computer Simple embedded computer
10 Embedded OS DOS Palm OS WinCE Symbian Linux uCLinux - without MMU RTLinux - for real-time system Android – Java and linux-based OS by google OpenMoko Etc.
11 Library GNU C Library – glibc Standard Include several libraries, ex: libm, libc, and so on. Too large for embedded system uC-libc Original designed for uClinux For No MMU system Support m68000, ColdFire and ARM Most APIs are compatible to Glibc, but not all uClibc Also support MMU More compatible to glibc, but still not all Support m68000, ColdFire, ARM, MIPS, x86, SuperH, PowerPC Support share library
13 What the hell is the black box doing? Power on BIOS Load the hardware configuration Find the booting device MBR of booting device MBR (master boot record) is in the first sector of booting device Boot loader is stored in the MBR of booting device When booting, it will read the booting information of boot loader in MBR.
14 It’s time to prepare for working Loading Kernel Boot loader knows where the kernel is stored. De-compress the compressed kernel image and start to drive the hardware device. Init The first executed process is init. It reads the file “/etc/inittab” Run-level run some application of /etc/rc.d/rcx.d Login /bin/login
15 Root Filesystem Root filesystem contains the set of applications, libraries, and related files needed to run the system According to the requirement of the system, the architecture of Root filesystem is different. Generally, the most useful directories of root filesystem are bin dev etc lib sbin usr proc*
16 MBR addressDescriptionSize (byte) 0Code area440 (max 446) 440Optional Disk signature4 444Usually Nulls; 0x00002 446Table of primary partitions64 510MBR signature2 Total ： 512 bytes
17 What is boot loader ? Definition of Boot Loader The first section of code to be executed after the embedded system is powered on. Boot Loader in x86 PC consists of two parts BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) OS Loader (located in MBR of Hard Disk) Ex. LILO and GRUB In some embedded systems the role of the boot loader is more complicated Since these systems may not have a BIOS to initial system configuration
18 Boot loader Boot Loader is varied from CPU to CPU, from board to board Since Boot Loader is very close to hardware Hardware manufacturer may provide corresponding boot loader. Examples: LILO 、 GRUB x86 compatible boot loader PPCBOOT Boot loader for PowerPC based embedded Linux systems
19 Boot loader (cont.) PMON For MIPS architecture Das U-Boot “Universal Boot loader“ For PowerPC, ARM, XScale, MIPS, Coldfire, NIOS, x86, etc.
20 BTW Because of the boot loader functionality, the boot loader we use have to depend on our OS The boot loader have to “know” the kernel file-system. LILO and GRUB support Windows and Linux, but the windows boot loader does not.
23 First type of Host/Target Development Setups Linked Setup Host contains the cross-platform development environment Target contains an appropriate bootloader, kernel, and root filesystem Kernel could be available via TFTP Root filesystem could be NFS
24 Second type of Host/Target Development Setups Removable Storage Setup OS is written into storage by the host, and then is transferred to the target, and is used to boot the target device Host contains the cross-platform development environment Target contains bootloader The rest of the components are stored on a removable storage media
25 Third type of Host/Target Development Setups Standalone Setup Target is a self-contained development system and includes all the required software to boot, operate, and develop additional software
27 Cross-Compiler Toolchain Toolchain means not only compiler But also Library, Linker (ld), assembler (as), other binutils, etc. For two reasons we need the Toolchain Different architecture (ex: X86 & arm) Different Library Usually Toolchain is downloaded from Internet and just use it If you have to setup Toolchain by yourself, you will get into big trouble
29 Setup Cross Compiler Toolchain Versions are very important not all versions of one tool will build properly when combined with different versions of the others “New” doesn’t mean “Suitable” The only way to find the appropriate tool set is just “Try” or Google it
30 Setup Cross Compiler Toolchain Five main steps 1. Kernel headers setup 2. Binary utilities setup 3. Bootstrap compiler setup Some languages supported by gcc, such as C++, require C library support Only support C language here 4. C library setup Compile library used in target system 5. Full compiler setup Build full compiler with C library
32 Make and Makefile Development problems It is hard to manage the relationship of files in large project. Every change requires long compilation Motivation To manage the project well and automatically in the case of Many lines of code Multiple components More than one programmer
33 Make and Makefile (cont.) A Makefile is a file (script) containing Project structure (files, dependencies) Instructions for files creation The “make” command reads a Makefile, understands the project structure and makes up the executable Note that the Makefile mechanism is not limited to C programs
42 Start to compile uClinux Compile make dep Check the dependence of files make make Errors occur solve it (Google it) make again
43 Make for each components Make linux_only Used to make kernel Make user_only Used to make application Make lib_only Used to make necessary library Make romfs 將編譯好的用戶程式產生 Romfs 檔系統（ romfs 目錄）。 Make image 根據 romfs 目錄產生檔系統映射檔，然後編譯核心，產生核心映射 檔。
44 Final output Finally, there are two files generated ： zImage uClinux kernel 2.4.x compress image romfs.img Rom file-system Write files into corresponding location bootloader.bin zImage romfs.img
46 Install an application Configure configure –h for information about parameters Some times the Makefile is generated by configure configure --parameters Ex: configure --enable-release --enable-optimizations Compile make make Errors occur solve it (Google it) make again make install Install application or lib into specific location
48 When installing Add the path of Toolchain to PATH export PATH=/example/toolchain/path:$PATH --prefix=PREFIX Indicate where to install application --target=TARGET configure for building compilers for TARGET [HOST]
50 Down Size Remove unused part of application configure --disable-(something) Reduce binary code size strip One of binutils tool Strip symbols and debug messages from object files uClinux ELF -> FLAT Optimum size in compile time gcc -Os Cut down library Ace in the hole
51 Efficiency Dynamic linking -> Static Use more efficient function in program Ex: memcpy vs mmap Even use assembly language to rewrite critical part Optimum in configure configure --enable-release --enable-optimizations Turn up gcc optimum level gcc -O0 ~ -O3
52 ETC. Low response time Minimal memory usage Power saving