Presentation on theme: "Unit 1: Overview of Linux: History, Characteristics, and Installation Objectives 1: Describe the history and unique characteristics of the Linux operating."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 1: Overview of Linux: History, Characteristics, and Installation Objectives 1: Describe the history and unique characteristics of the Linux operating system. –1.1: Identify the events that led to the development of Linux. –1.2: Identify the characteristics of Linux that contribute to its popularity. 2: Create a dual-boot environment with Linux and Microsoft Windows. –2.1: Identify and use the partition types on a computer. –2.3: Identify the features of the Logical Volume Manager (LVM) subsystem in Linux. –2.4: Partition a drive correctly for a Windows/Linux dual boot. –2.5: Install and configure Linux into a dual-boot environment.
Licenses that govern Linux and free and open-source software There is a difference between free software and open-source software. Both use the same license—the GPL. However, free software helps users focus on freedom and ethics but open-source software is related to the efficiencies gained by the free-software approach to development.
What is Free Software? Free software” is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of “free” as in “free speech”, not as in “free beer”.Free software Free software is a matter of the users' freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software. More precisely, it refers to four kinds of freedom, for the users of the software: The freedom to run the program, for any purpose (freedom 0). The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it to your needs (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a precondition for this. The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2). The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits (freedom 3). Access to the source code is a precondition for this.
The Open Source Definition Open source doesn't just mean access to the source code. The distribution terms of open-source software must comply with the following criteria:
1. Free Redistribution The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources. The license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale.
2. Source Code The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form. Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction cost preferably, downloading via the Internet without charge. The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program. Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed. Intermediate forms such as the output of a preprocessor or translator are not allowed.
3. Derived Works The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software.
4. Integrity of The Author's Source Code The license may restrict source-code from being distributed in modified form only if the license allows the distribution of "patch files" with the source code for the purpose of modifying the program at build time. The license must explicitly permit distribution of software built from modified source code. The license may require derived works to carry a different name or version number from the original software.
5. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups The license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons.
6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor. For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, or from being used for genetic research.
7. Distribution of License The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties.
8. License Must Not Be Specific to a Product The rights attached to the program must not depend on the program's being part of a particular software distribution. If the program is extracted from that distribution and used or distributed within the terms of the program's license, all parties to whom the program is redistributed should have the same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with the original software distribution.
9. License Must Not Restrict Other Software The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software. For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software.
10. License Must Be Technology- Neutral No provision of the license may be predicated on any individual technology or style of interface.
What is GNU? The name “GNU” is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not Unix”; it is pronounced g-noo, as one syllable with no vowel sound between the g and the n. The GNU Project was launched in 1984 to develop a complete Unix-like operating system which is free software: the GNU system.free software GNU's kernel isn't finished, so GNU is used with the kernel Linux. The combination of GNU and Linux is the GNU/Linux operating system, now used by millions.
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Preamble The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for software and other kinds of works. The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed to take away your freedom to share and change the works. By contrast, the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free software for all its users. We, the Free Software Foundation, use the GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to any other work released this way by its authors. You can apply it to your programs, too.
Other types of licenses Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) Microsoft End-User License Agreement (EULA).
The background of Linux Revolution “OS” CPoUt8whttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WVTW CPoUt8w I7cPSY&feature=PlayList&p=D8C1D6C6C 9305DD4&index=0&playnext=1http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LQ3WB I7cPSY&feature=PlayList&p=D8C1D6C6C 9305DD4&index=0&playnext=1
Insert CD. Reboot Machine. You'll be presented with a very nice Fedora artwork GRUB splash and some options.
Select the 'Skip' option when you'll be asked if you want to check the media before installation and press ENTER:
Anaconda (the Fedora installer) will load and you'll see the welcome screen. Click Next:
Choose your language:
Choose your keyboard layout:
Now, if you have an empty hard drive, all you have to do is click Next (make sure the "Remove Linux partitions on selected drives and create default layout" option is selected).Linux
If you don't have an empty hard drive and you still want to install Fedora 8 on your machine, then make sure you select the "Use free space on the selected drives and create default layout" option (10 GB minimum free space is required). Click Next:
Disk Partitioning Swap The default partitioning schema is displayed. This screen allows you to make changes to the schema. The partitioning schema will depend on the purpose of your Linux system. In this configuration we will create three partitions for swap, /boot, and /. Swap is used as virtual memory space for an operating system. Swap should be configured for 2 times the amount of RAM or 2GB maximum. Select the free space then click New. Select swap as the File System Type Set Size to 1024MB (or twice your RAM size) Click OK.
Disk Partitioning /boot and / Create the /boot partition. /boot contains boot specific files and usually needs about 100MB. Select /boot as the mount point Set the Size to 100MB. Click OK Create the / partition. The remainder of the disk space will use the / partition. Select / as the mount point Set the Size to the remainder of space available (Fill to maximum allowable) Click OK
Disk Partition Completion When you complete your manual configuration you should see the three partitions you created. Changes can be made as necessary. Tab or point to Next and select.
The primary and extended partitions from the example
Boot Loader Configuration The default boot loader is GRUB. If you have more than one boot partition you can select which you want to use as the default. In this case the partition identified as Other is your existing Windows partition and the Linux partition is identified as Fedora Core. Ensure Fedora Core is selected as the default. You may also select a boot loader password and configure boot loader options. Tab or point to Next and select.
The boot loader is similar to a traffic officer, pointing the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) to the operating system that it must load.
People who are used to running only Windows may not be familiar with the Windows boot loader (ntldr). Until Windows Vista was developed, ntldr was not designed to support other operating systems. However, we will be dual-booting between Windows and Linux in this course. We will use the GRand Unified Bootloader (GRUB) to accomplish this because the Windows XP/2003 boot loader cannot accommodate other operating systems.
If you have a DHCP network (dynamic IP address) you can click Next right now,
if you have a static IP address click the "Edit" button
When you're done with the network configuration, click Next and you will be asked to select your location (country/city):
Once you've selected your timezone, click next and you must enter the root (System Administrator) password. The longer, the better (WRITE IT SOMEWHERE OR MEMORIZE IT):
Now you can select the desired packages (or not):
Hit the Next button and everything will be done automatically from now on. The installation process will take about 8-10 minutes (depending on your computer specs and the selected packages).computer
When the installation is over, you will get a "Congratulations, the installation is complete" screen. Click the 'Finish' button and your computer will automatically reboot:
Remove the DVD from your optical drive and your brand new Fedora 8 Linux operating system will start for the first time:Linux operating system
Before you reach the Fedora desktop, you must do a one-time general system configuration:
1. Accept the license (it's free, don't worry) and click Forward.
2. Configure your firewall. By default, SSH is checked but if you don't use it, uncheck it!
3. SELinux defaults to (Enforcing), change it and click the 'Forward' button.
4. Make sure the date and time are correctly setup.
5. Don’t’ submit your hardware profile to the Fedora Project to help focus their efforts on popular hardware and platforms.
6. Create a user account.
That's it! Now log in to your new Linux OS (with the user and password you've just created):
and enjoy the ultimate, spectacular, breathtaking Fedora 8 distribution.