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ETL - Oracle Database Features and PL/SQL Techniques Boyan Boev CNsys BGOUG - 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "ETL - Oracle Database Features and PL/SQL Techniques Boyan Boev CNsys BGOUG - 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 ETL - Oracle Database Features and PL/SQL Techniques Boyan Boev CNsys BGOUG

2 Agenda ETL Concepts ETL Process Development - Recommendations –Oracle Database Configuration –PL/SQL Techniques –Database Features Conclusion BGOUG

3 What is ETL? ETL Elements ETL Purpose ETL as a Part of Business Intelligence Solution Types of ETL  Using Tools  Custom PL/SQL Scripts BGOUG

4 ETL – Extract, Transform and Load Extract  Pull the Data From the Source Transform  Convert the Input Format to the Target Format  Encode any Values Load  Insert the Transformed Data to the Target Tables BGOUG

5 Agenda ETL Concepts ETL Process Development - Recommendations –Oracle Database Configuration –PL/SQL Techniques –Database Features Conclusion BGOUG

6 Oracle database configuration Don’t use ARCHIVE LOG Mode  Reduce the Amount of I/O Activity Use NOLOGGING DML Statements ALTER TABLE … NOLOGGING; INSERT /*+ nologging*/ … Change the stage schema data model  Indexes  Constraints  Triggers BGOUG

7 Agenda ETL Concepts ETL Process Development - Recommendations –Oracle Database Configuration –PL/SQL Techniques –Database Features Conclusion BGOUG

8 ETL – recommendations PL/SQL Techniques  Bulk Binding  Collection Types  Pipelined Table Functions  Package Variables  Native Compilation BGOUG

9 PL/SQL – Binding Types of Binds  IN-Binds  OUT-Binds Bind Options  Single Row Binds  Bulk Binds BGOUG

10 Single Row Binds Cursor For Loop Example: BGOUG DECLARE CURSORexample_cursor( p_id_in NUMBER ) IS SELECT * FROM customer_action WHERE cust_id = p_id_in; v_cust_id NUMBER := 1681; BEGIN FOR rec INexample_cursor( v_cust_id ) LOOP INSERT INTO cust_action_hist(…) VALUES( … ); END LOOP; END; /

11 BGOUG Context Switching

12 BGOUG Bulk Binding IN-Binds  - An Array of Values is passed to SQL Engine OUT-Binds  - SQL Engine populates a PL/SQL Bind Array Context Switching once per Batch Instead of Once Per Row Performance Increase to Up to 15 Times

13 BGOUG Bulk Bind Operators Bulk Collect  Specifying of the LIMIT clause  Be Careful to handle last batch OPEN cursor … LOOP FETCH cursor BULK COLLECT INTO … LIMIT 100; EXIT WHEN cursor%NOTFOUND; END LOOP;

14 BGOUG Bulk Bind Operators FORALL  Bulk DML Operator  Not Looping Construct  PL/SQL table is Referenced in the statement  Handling and Reporting Exceptions  VALUES OF, INDICES OF ( New in Oracle 10g ) FORALL i IN INSERT INTO emp2 VALUES (enums(i), names(i), median(sals),...);

15 BGOUG Collection Types Associative Arrays( PL/SQL Tables )  PL/SQL type only - not a SQL Type  Easy to Use Nested Tables  Shared Type

16 BGOUG Associative Arrays( PL/SQL Tables ) automatic element allocation no need to initialize DECLARE TYPE EmpTabTyp IS TABLE OF employees%ROWTYPE INDEX BY PLS_INTEGER; emp_tab EmpTabTyp; BEGIN SELECT * BULK COLLECT INTO emp_tab FROM employees WHERE employee_id = 100; END; /

17 BGOUG Nested Tables PL/SQL  Example DECLARE TYPE nest_tab_t IS TABLE OF NUMBER; nt nest_tab_t := nest_tab_t(); BEGIN FOR i IN LOOP nt.EXTEND; nt(i) := i; END LOOP; END; /

18 BGOUG Nested Tables Global  Example CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE _demo_obj_t AS OBJECT ( _idNUMBER, demo_codeNUMBER, valueVARCHAR2(30) ); / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE _demo_nt_t AS TABLE OF _demo_obj_t; /

19 BGOUG Nested Tables SQL-Defined Nested Tables  Sorted  Aggregated  Ised in Dynamic In-Lists  Joined with SQL Tables  Joined with other PL/SQL nested tables Nested Tables Enable Table Functions  TABLE Operator otell Oracle to treat the Variable like SQL Table  CAST Operator oExplicitly Tells Oracle the Data Type to be used to Handle the Operation -

20 BGOUG Nested Tables Global Nested tables – example: DECLARE eml_dmo_nt _demo_nt_t := _demo_nt_t(); BEGIN -- Some logic that populates the nested table … eml_dmo_nt.EXTEND(3); eml_dmo_nt(1) := _demo_obj_t(45, 3, '23'); eml_dmo_nt(2) := _demo_obj_t(22, 3, '41'); eml_dmo_nt(3) := _demo_obj_t(18, 7, 'over_100k'); -- Process the data in assending order of id. FOR r IN (SELECT * FROM TABLE(CAST(eml_dmo_nt AS _demo_nt_t)) ORDER BY 1) LOOP dbms_output.put_line(r. _id || ' ' || r.demo_id); END LOOP; END; /

21 BGOUG Table Functions Data is Buffered in the Local Variables During Function Execution Pipelined Table Functions –SELECT * FROM plsql_function;

22 BGOUG Pipelined Functions - example FUNCTION pipelined_demo( data SYS_REFCURSOR ) RETURN demo_nt_t PIPELINED IS CURSOR demo_cursor IS SELECT demo_obj_t(emp_id, value) FROM emp; emp_nt demo_nt_t; BEGIN OPEN _demo_cur; LOOP EXIT WHEN _demo_cur%NOTFOUND; FETCH _demo_cur BULK COLLECT INTO eml_dmo_nt LIMIT 1000; FOR i IN 1..eml_dmo_nt.COUNT LOOP /* Apply some business logic on the object here, and return a row. */ PIPE ROW (eml_dmo_nt(i)); END LOOP; RETURN; END;

23 BGOUG Package Variables What are Package Variables  Globally Declared Variables in Package, outside of a Procedure or Function Definition  Values set by Package Initialization Code  Enable Data Caching

24 BGOUG Native Compilation How it works?  PL/SQL First is Compiled Down To P-Code  C Source Code is Generated from P-Code  Native Compiler is invoked Creating a 'C' Shared Object Library  Subsequent Calls to PL/SQL Object are Run by the 'C' Library NComp and Performance

25 Agenda ETL Concepts ETL Process Development - Recommendations –Oracle Database Configuration –PL/SQL Techniques –Database Features Conclusion BGOUG

26 ETL – recommendations Database Features and Utilities  External Tables( 9i )  Transportable Tablespaces  DML Exception Handling( 10g R2 )  Regular Expressions Support( 10g R1 )  SQL*Loader  Direct Path INSERT  Parallel DML Statements BGOUG

27 Database Features External tables  File can be Queried as if it is a Real Database Table Can Sort, Aggregate, Filter Rows, etc.  External File Can be Queried in Parallel  Oracle 9i - Read-Only using SQL*Loader Engine  Only read-only access to external files  Oracle 10g - Read-Write using Data Pump Engine  Can do read/write operations with external files Transportable Tablespaces  Oracle 10g - transport across different platforms

28 BGOUG Database Features DML Exception Handling ( New in 10g R2 )  Catch the Error and Move On: Error Logging Clause  Enabling: SQL> exec dbms_errlog.CREATE_ERROR_LOG ('ACCOUNTS','ERR_ACCOUNTS'); SQL> insert into accounts select * from accounts_ny log errors into err_accounts reject limit 200; SQL> select ORA_ERR_NUMBER$, ORA_ERR_MESG$, ACC_NO from err_accounts;

29 BGOUG Database Features Regular Expression Support ( New in 10g R1 ) SQL*Loader Direct Path Insert  SQL*Loader  CREATE TABLE AS SELECT …  INSERT /*+ APPEND*/ … SELECT Parallel DML Statements

30 BGOUG Agenda ETL Concepts ETL Process Development - Recommendations –Oracle Database Configuration –PL/SQL Techniques –Database Features Conclusion

31 BGOUG Example create package with PIPELINED Function.... FUNCTION transform (new_data SYS_REFCURSOR) RETURN _demo_nt_t PIPELINED PARALLEL_ENABLE ( PARTITION new_data BY ANY ) IS.... Transformation is Just a Simple INSERT as SELECT  Elegant solution to Parallel, Transactional Co-Processing INSERT /*+ append nologging*/ INTO... SELECT /*+ parallel(a,4)*/ FROM.. TABLE( CAST( package.pipe_func_name( select * from table_3 ) as TYPE ) a);

32 BGOUG Conclusion High Perofmance ETL Solution

33 BGOUG Recommended Readings – Sites –http://www.oracle.com/technology//index.h tmlhttp://www.oracle.com/technology//index.h tml –http://rittman.nethttp://rittman.net –http://www.intelligententerprise.com/http://www.intelligententerprise.com/ –http://asktom.oracle.comhttp://asktom.oracle.com –http://www.dbazine.com/datawarehousehttp://www.dbazine.com/datawarehouse –http://dbasupport.com/http://dbasupport.com/

34 BGOUG Recommended Readings – Books / /qid= /sr=2-1/ref=pd_bbs_b_2_1/ ?v=glance&s=books

35 BGOUG Recommended Readings – Books / /ref=pd_sim_b_1/ ?%5Fencoding=UTF8&v=glance

36 BGOUG Recommended Readings – Books / /qid= /sr=2- 2/ref=pd_bbs_b_2_2/ ?v=glance&s=books

37 BGOUG Questions or Comments Boyan Boev


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