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Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition Chapter 9 System Initialization and X Windows.

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Presentation on theme: "Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition Chapter 9 System Initialization and X Windows."— Presentation transcript:

1 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, Second Edition Chapter 9 System Initialization and X Windows

2 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e2 Objectives Summarize the major steps necessary to boot a Linux system Configure the LILO and GRUB boot loaders Dual boot Linux with the Windows OS using LILO, GRUB, and NTLOADER Understand how the init daemon initializes the system at boot time into different runlevels

3 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e3 Objectives (continued) Configure the system to start daemons upon system startup Explain the purpose of the major Linux GUI components: X Windows, Window Manager, and desktop environment List common Window Managers and desktop environments used in Linux Configure X Windows settings using various Linux utilities

4 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e4 The Boot Process POST: Series of tests run when computer is turned on –Ensures functionality of hardware MBR: Defines partitions and boot loader –Normally located on first HDD sector Boot loader: Program used to load an OS MBR might contain pointer to a partition containing a boot loader on the first sector Active partition: Partition pointed to by MBR –One per HDD

5 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e5 The Boot Process (continued) /boot: Directory containing kernel and boot-related files Vmlinuz- : Linux kernel file Daemon: System process that performs useful tasks –e.g., printing, scheduling, OS maintenance Init (initialize) daemon: First process started by Linux kernel –Loads all other daemons –Brings system to usable state

6 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e6 The Boot Process (continued) Figure 9-1: The boot process

7 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e7 Boot Loaders Primary function: Load Linux kernel into memory Other functions: –Passing information to kernel –Booting another OS Two most common boot loaders: –Linux Loader (LILO) –GRand Unified Boot loader (GRUB)

8 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e8 LILO Traditional Linux boot loader Typically located on MBR Allows choice of OS to load at startup To configure, edit /etc/lilo.conf

9 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e9 LILO (continued) append= keyword (in /etc/lilo.conf): Useful for manually passing information to Linux kernel –Can pass almost any hardware information Format is hardware dependent Must reinstall LILO if /etc/lilo.conf file altered lilo command: Reinstalls LILO –-u option: Uninstall LILO

10 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e10 GRUB More recent than the LILO boot loader Stage 1: First major part of GRUB –Typically resides on MBR –Points to Stage 1.5 Stage1.5: Loads filesystem support –Resides in /boot/grub Stage2: Performs boot loader functions –Displays graphical boot loader screen To configure, edit /boot/grub/grub.conf –Read directly by Stage 2 boot loader –HDDs and partitions identified by numbers Format: (hd, )

11 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e11 GRUB (continued) Figure 9-3: GRUB boot loader screen

12 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e12 GRUB (continued) GRUB root partition: Partition containing Stage 2 boot loader and grub.conf file GRUB normally allows manipulation of boot loader –To prevent, enable password protection grub-md5-crypt command: Generates encrypted password for use in grub.conf file Can switch boot loader from GRUB to LILO at any time grub-install command: Installs GRUB boot loader

13 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e13 GRUB (continued) Figure 9-4: Viewing help at the GRUB boot loader screen prompt

14 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e14 Dual Booting Linux Only one OS may be used at a time Boot loader may be configured to allow choice of OS at boot time

15 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e15 Using LILO or GRUB to Dual Boot other Operating Systems Dual boot: Two or more OSs exist on HDD Easiest if Linux installed after another OS –Allows installation program to detect other OS Place appropriate entries in boot loader configuration file LILO and GRUB cannot load Windows Kernel directly

16 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e16 Using LILO or GRUB to Dual Boot other Operating Systems (continued) Figure 9-5: Partitioning for a dual boot system

17 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e17 Using LILO or GRUB to Dual Boot other Operating Systems (continued) Figure 9-6: Configuring GRUB for a dual boot system

18 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e18 Using FIPS Windows installers use entire HDD for Windows partitions –Leaves no space for Linux First non-destructive Interactive Partition Splitter (FIPS): Resizes Windows partition –Preserves Windows OS on Windows partition –Creates space to install Linux

19 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e19 Using FIPS (continued) Guidelines/limitations to using FIPS: –FAT16 and FAT32 filesystems only –Will only work with primary Windows partition –Windows partition split into two primary partitions –Need sufficient free space within existing Windows partition to allow Linux installation

20 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e20 Using a Windows Boot Loader to Dual Boot Linux Specify location of GRUB or LILO in Windows boot loader configuration NTLOADER: Boot loader available with Windows NT/2000/XP –At boot time, prompts for OS to boot –Able to load LILO or GRUB Windows must be installed on first primary active partition –NTLOADER placed on MBR by default

21 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e21 Using a Windows Boot Loader to Dual Boot Linux (continued) Figure 9-7: Configuring GRUB to reside on a Linux partition

22 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e22 Using a Windows Boot Loader to Dual Boot Linux (continued) When Linux installed, install GRUB on first sector of the partition –Avoids overwriting NTLOADER in MBR After Linux installed: –Run Linux rescue utility –Make GRUB bootable image file (linboot.bin) –Reboot into Windows OS –Copy linboot.bin to C:\ –Configure NTLOADER configuration file

23 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e23 Using a Windows Boot Loader to Dual Boot Linux (continued) Boot.ini: File used to configure NTLOADER For NTLOADER to be able to boot Linux, must specify the path to linboot.bin

24 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e24 Using a Windows Boot Loader to Dual Boot Linux (continued) Figure 9-8: NTLOADER operating system choice screen at boot time

25 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e25 Linux Initialization Kernel assumes control after Linux loaded –Executes first daemon process (init daemon) /etc/inittab: Configuration file for init daemon

26 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e26 Runlevels Runlevel: Defines number and type of daemons loaded into memory and executed –init daemon responsible for changing runlevels Often called initstates runlevel command: Displays current and most recent runlevel init command: Change OS runlevel telinit command: Alias to init command

27 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e27 The /etc/inittab File Consulted to start or stop daemons /etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit: First script executed during system startup –Init hardware, set variables, check filesystems, perform system tasks for daemon loading mingetty program: Displays login prompt on character-based terminals /etc/rc.d/rc.local file: Performs post-system-startup tasks

28 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e28 The /etc/inittab File (continued) /etc/rc.d/rc command: Executes all files starting with S or K in /etc/rc.d/rc*.d/ –Runlevel must be specified e.g., /etc/rc.d/rc 5 will execute files in /etc/rc.d/rc5.d/ –Symbolic links to scripts that start daemons –S means “Start,” K means “Kill”

29 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e29 The /etc/inittab File (continued) Figure 9-9: The Linux initialization process

30 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e30 Configuring Daemon Startup Most symbolic links in /etc/rc.d/rc*.d point to daemon executable files in /etc/rc.d/init.d Most daemons accept arguments start, stop, restart To add daemons to be automatically started: –Add executable to /etc/rc.d/init.d –Create appropriate links to /etc/rc.d/rc*.d ntsysv utility: Modifies file entries in /etc/rc.d/rc*.d directories

31 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e31 Configuring Daemon Startup (continued) Figure 9-10: Results of ntsysv―level 5 command

32 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e32 The X Windows System: Linux GUI Components Figure 9-11: Components of the Linux GUI

33 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e33 X Windows X Windows: Core component of Linux GUI X client: Requests graphics from X server and displays them –Does not need to run on same computer as X Windows X server: Draws graphics XFree86: OSS version of X Windows –Originally intended for Intelx86 platform

34 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e34 Windows Managers and Desktop Environments Window manager: Modifies look and feel of X Windows Desktop environment: Works with a window manager to provide standard GUI environment –Uses standard programs and development tools –KDE and GNOME are most common

35 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e35 Windows Managers and Desktop Environments (continued) K Windows Manager (kwm): Window manager that works under KDE Qt toolkit: Software toolkit used with KDE GNOME Desktop Environment: Default desktop environment in Red Hat Linux –Sawfish Window Manager –GTK+ toolkit Xfce Desktop Environment: Consumes less hardware resources than KDE or GNOME

36 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e36 Windows Managers and Desktop Environments (continued) Figure 9-12: The KDE desktop

37 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e37 Windows Managers and Desktop Environments (continued) Figure 9-13: The GNOME desktop

38 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e38 Windows Managers and Desktop Environments (continued) Figure 9-14: The Xfce desktop

39 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e39 Windows Managers and Desktop Environments (continued) Figure 9-15: The Tab Window Manager

40 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e40 Starting and Stopping X Windows runlevel 5 starts gdm –Displays graphical login screen –Allows user to choose the desktop environment or Window Manager /etc/X11/gdm/gdm.conf: Contains gdm configuration data For runlevel 3: –Start gdm manually –Or, use startx command

41 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e41 Starting and Stopping X Windows (continued) Figure 9-16: The GNOME Display Manager

42 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e42 Starting and Stopping X Windows (continued) startx command: start X Windows and Window Manager or desktop environment specified in.Xclients file in home directory –Usually points to.Xclients-default file Edit.Xclients-defaults file to start other desktops or Window Managers on X Windows Desktop Switching Tool: Change settings used in the.Xclients-default file from KDE or GNOME

43 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e43 Starting and Stopping X Windows (continued) Figure 9-17: The Desktop Switching Tool

44 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e44 Configuring X Windows X Windows interfaces with video hardware –Requires information regarding keyboard, mouse, monitor, and video adapter card Required video adapter card information: –Model –Amount of RAM –Chipset Required monitor information: –Maximum resolution supported –Horizontal sync (hsync) range –Vertical sync (vsync) range

45 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e45 Configuring X Windows (continued) Mouse, keyboard, monitor, and video adapter card information stored in a file –/etc/X11/xorg.conf: X.org implementation of X Windows –/etc/X11/XF86Config: XFree86 implementation of X Windows mouseconfig and system-config-mouse commands: Configure mouse

46 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e46 Configuring X Windows (continued) Figure 9-18: Mouse configuration using mouseconfig

47 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e47 Configuring X Windows (continued) system-config-keyboard command: Configure keyboard system-config-display command: Configure video adapter card and monitor xvidtune utility: Fine-tune the vsync and hsync of the video card

48 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e48 Configuring X Windows (continued) Figure 9-19: Keyboard configuration using system-config-keyboard

49 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e49 Configuring X Windows (continued) Figure 9-20: Configuring resolution and color depth using system-config-display

50 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e50 Configuring X Windows (continued) Figure 9-21: Configuring video card and monitor hardware using system-config-display

51 Linux+ Guide to Linux Certification, 2e51 Configuring X Windows (continued) Figure 9-23: The xvidtune utility


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