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Module 2: Safe Operations and Internal Traffic Control in the Work Space.

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1 Module 2: Safe Operations and Internal Traffic Control in the Work Space

2 Overview of Module 2 Introduction and Background –Facts and statistics –Case studies Hazards in Work Space Preventative Measures –Development of Internal Traffic Control Plans (ITCPs) –Safe operation and maintenance of heavy equipment and motor vehicles –Night work –Additional safety considerations –Applicable Standards Summary

3 Introduction and Background Highway and street construction (H&SC) workers are exposed to injury and fatality risk The work is in proximity to construction equipment, as well as passing traffic The module covers, –Hazards in the work space –Injury prevention with an emphasis on Internal Traffic Control Plans (ITCP)

4 Typical Work Activities Within Work Space

5 Typical work zone activities

6 Facts and Statistics Injury and fatality exposures are extremely high in highway work zones Each year, over 100 H&SC workers are killed and more than 20,000 are injured Half of the H&SC workers are killed by construction trucks and equipment On-foot workers represent approximately 57% of the worker fatalities in work zones More than 30% of fatalities involve equipment operators

7 Case Study #1 A 39-year-old construction laborer was killed after falling down from moving front-end loader Victim was working with the loader operator laying asphalt around manhole covers. Victim was riding on the front-end loader battery box. He grabbed the forward/reverse control lever. Operator told victim to stop; he went ahead and pulled it anyway. The machine immediately stopped and reversed direction As a result, he fell from the loader 3 feet, and was run over by it.

8 Case Study #2 A 55-year-old highway department supervisor died after being struck by a backing dump truck at a multi-lane highway work zone. The crew was filling potholes and laying down asphalt over the repair. The supervisor crossed into the lane of the oncoming truck; the driver did not see him and backed over him. Victim was pronounced dead at the scene.

9 Hazards in the Work Space Worker being struck by or caught in/between equipment Electrocution due to contact with overhead and underground power lines Falls on the same level or down to lower levels Health exposures (noise, silica, lead) Environmental exposures (h eat, cold, humidity, etc.) Poor visibility exacerbates these hazards Untrained workers are particularly vulnerable.

10 Struck by and Caught in/between Hazards On-foot workers close to construction vehicles and equipment in tight areas Operators being caught in running equipment when collision or overturning occurs Flaggers being struck by or caught in between vehicles and construction equipment

11 Health and Environmental Hazards Affect workers who may or may not be involved in the activity creating the hazard Substances like silica dust and lead can create adverse health effects Construction and traffic noise can cause hearing loss Extreme cold can cause frostbite or hypothermia, and hot weather can cause heat stress

12 Hazards due to Poor Visibility and Inadequate Lighting Night work and inclement weather produce poor visibility Night work presents problems –Reduced visibility –Driver impairment or inattention –Fatigue and sleepiness Lack of adequate lighting magnifies the problem

13 Untrained Workers Untrained workers are more vulnerable to injuries –Not using Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) –Improper use of PPE –Unsafe work practices –Macho behavior, horseplay

14 Other Site Hazards Electrocution due to contact with overhead and underground power lines (Refer to Module No. 4) Highway construction materials like asphalt and concrete pose physical hazards to workers, such as burns, splashing wet material in the eye, etc. Strains and sprains due to overexertion and poor body positions Slips, trips, and falls due to poor housekeeping Fall from elevation and falling objects

15 Preventive Measures Operating and maintaining heavy equipment and trucks using safe procedures (Refer to Module No. 3) Implementing safe procedures for night work, and low visibility Safety protocols for preventing occupational health and environmental hazards Fall protection and prevention Developing a dynamic Internal Traffic Control Plan (ITCP) to prevent worker – equipment - traffic conflicts during construction

16 Development of Internal Traffic Control Plans What is an ITCP? Why develop ITCPs? How to develop an ITCP? What are the elements of an ITCP?

17 What is an INTERNAL Traffic Control Plan (ITCP)? Plan for coordinating the flow of construction vehicles, equipment, and workers operating within the work space –For improved safety within the work zone A typical ITCP addresses –Parking issues within the work space –Safe entry and exit of heavy equipment and trucks to and from the work space –Interactions of heavy equipment, trucks, and on- foot workers.

18 Why Develop ITCPs? Provide an organized plan to coordinate movements in the work area Minimize dangerous operations –Backing and operating near soft shoulders –Unguarded holes and slopes Prevent injuries and fatalities, while providing efficient operations

19 Developing an ITCP Development and implementation of an ITCP should be required for all major jobs Must accommodate changing requirements in various stages of construction Should incorporate all relevant input/feedback from employees Must be developed in coordination with the overall traffic control plan

20 Developing an ITCP Basic principles of ITCP for conflicting movements –Separation by space –Separation by time –Controls Schematic diagrams needed for movement of construction workers, vehicles and equipment in the work space

21 Elements of an ITCP Typically, an ITCP should cover –Roles and responsibilities of parties –Site specific information –Communication plan –Schematic diagrams –Hazard assessments –Training of site personnel on ITCP –Effectiveness evaluation

22 Elements of an ITCP – Roles and Responsibilities Chain of command An ITCP coordinator assigned to the project Establish coordinator’s role and authority Establish employees’ roles in implementing the ITCP

23 Elements of an ITCP – Project Specific Information Contact information (company personnel, emergency services, etc.) Location, time table, and scope of project On-site equipment and personnel Interface between internal and external traffic control plans

24 Elements of an ITCP – Hazard Assessment and Control Checklist of site specific hazards and mitigation methods Reporting system for incidents (and close calls) Safe procedures for traffic control in work space Anticipated traffic volumes, speeds, and speed limits Specifications for lighting Safe speed limits, clearances from high voltage power lines, blind corners, warnings of drop-off hazards, etc.

25 Elements of an ITCP – Communication Plan Designated channels of communication for any changes in plan Means of communications between on-foot workers, equipment operators, truck drivers, and other personnel Designation of personnel to monitor communications between vehicle and equipment operators

26 Elements of an ITCP – ITCP Diagrams Typically include –Standard symbols for pieces of equipment and project personnel on site –A layout of the work space positioned in the overall work zone –Locations of proximate traffic control devices (e.g. drums, cones, etc.) –Areas around equipment and operations prohibited to on-foot workers

27 Elements of an ITCP – ITCP Diagrams Also, diagrams showing –Locations for staging, storing and servicing materials and equipment –Locations of visitor and worker parking areas –Dimensions and locations of lateral buffer zones –Description of internal signage and all internal traffic control devices

28 Source: Graham - Migletz Sample Internal Traffic Control Plan for Trenching Work in a Highway Work Zone 30 ft trench Pedestrian free area 60 ft backfill Vehicle free area

29 Elements of an ITCP - Training Training is essential for all personnel Orientation of truck drivers to work space activities and ITCP Training delivered through –Tool box safety meetings –Distribution of site-specific safety materials (e.g. a copy of ITCP, safety guidelines) –Self-paced e-training

30 Elements of an ITCP – Effectiveness Evaluation Comprehensive approach –Review of ITCP during normal work zone inspections –Review and analyze incidents, close calls, and potential hazards –Retain schematic drawings and other documents for future use

31 A pick up truck parked behind the dump truck. Lack of proper planning for parking causes workers to park in improper and unsafe locations inside work space.

32 An existing lane closed to traffic is utilized as an acceleration lane for trucks, but canalization is done improperly. No designated exit point for trucks.

33 Limited work space - a challenge for internal traffic control and operations

34 Employee vehicle parked near equipment, and blocking the truck route

35 Parking near heavy equipment and crane

36 Safe Operation & Maintenance of Heavy Equipment and Trucks in Work Space Safe Equipment Operation around On-foot Workers Conflicting Movements of Trucks, Equipment and Workers Turning Radius and Geometry Safe Operation and Maintenance of Equipment

37 Safe Equipment Operation Around On-foot Workers Separate on-foot workers from equipment as much as possible Design the work space and operations to eliminate/minimize backing and blind spots Train workers and equipment operators on communication methods When necessary, use a spotter so the vehicles do not run over workers or back into other vehicles

38 Shows an extremely hazardous condition where an on-foot worker is working very close to operating equipment, and is in a tight space between the equipment and the barrier. Never work so close to operating equipment, especially when there is a “pinch point”. Workers working too close to working equipment against a barrier “pinch point”

39 Conflicting Movements of Trucks, Equipment and Workers Conflicts create potential for accidents Conflicts between –Trucks and trucks –Trucks and equipment –Trucks and on-foot workers –Equipment and on-foot workers –Equipment and equipment

40 Conflicting Movements of Trucks, Equipment and Workers Minimize conflicting interactions as much as possible –Separation by space –Separation by time Determine the locations of and design various internal movements –Entry and exit locations for trucks and equipment –Truck and equipment routes within work space –Other activity locations and pedestrian paths (e.g., rest room locations, site office, etc.)

41 Separation by space –Use channelizing devices, such as barriers –Separate activities (e.g., excavating, grading, staging, etc.) Separation by time –Schedule work with safety in mind Arrival and departure of trucks Loading and unloading Combination of both approaches Conflicting Movements of Trucks, Equipment and Workers

42 Collisions within the work zone involving construction trucks and/or equipment

43 Properly design the elements of internal traffic control that cause conflicts –Safe entry and exit points –Speed change lanes Deceleration lane Acceleration lane –Turning radius and geometry –Traffic control devices Conflicting Movements of Trucks, Equipment and Workers

44 Design of entry and exit points –Consideration of roadway geometry –Locations of existing driveways –Access design and management Conflicting Movements of Trucks, Equipment and Workers

45 Design of deceleration and acceleration lanes –Length of speed change lanes –Speed of trucks Terminal speed at entry/exit point Cruise/operating speed (speed of roadway traffic) Separate entry and exit points to reduce conflicts Conflicting Movements of Trucks, Equipment and Workers

46 Work Space Taper Length Rigid Barriers A Typical Diagram Showing an Acceleration Lane

47 Turning Radius and Geometry Turning radius and geometry at entry and exit points –Varies with the type of vehicles –Off tracking Larger vehicles - larger off tracking Off tracking can cause injuries/fatalities Turning radii must be designed by a qualified person –Geometric design specialist

48 Turning radius for trucks should be designed properly

49 This figure shows the turning characteristics of a typical tractor/semi-trailer combination truck. Refer to “A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2001” for details.

50 This figure shows the minimum turning path for Intermediate Semitrailer (WB-12 [WB-40]) Design Vehicle. Refer to “A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2001” for details.

51 Safe Operation and Maintenance of Equipment Only authorized personnel must operate or repair equipment – Must be trained in safety Perform daily inspections and make the necessary repairs –Keep operator manuals in the equipment cab and provide ready access Equipment with poorly functioning safety devices (e.g. backing signals, head and tail lights, etc.) are unsafe to operate Comply with OSHA Standard: 1926 Subpart O - Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine Operations

52 Safe Procedures for Night Work Worker Responsibilities: –Stay alert –Get plenty of rest. Don’t carry on daytime activities and then work a night shift –Be aware of surroundings, and the operations around your work area –Wear high visibility apparel

53 Management Responsibilities –Improve worker and equipment visibility Enforce use of hard hats with retroreflective material and retroreflective clothing Encourage using flashing and warning lights on vehicles and equipment (without distracting motorists) –Plan (through ITCP) to minimize on-foot workers coming close to heavy equipment –Ensure temporary lighting for workers does not distract motorists Safe Procedures for Night Work Operations

54 Additional Safety Considerations Avoid overhead power lines by maintaining the minimum clearance (10 feet or more) Before excavation, call appropriate agency to locate underground cables Use control measures to minimize silica exposure (e.g. w et cutting/drilling, exhaust ventilation) Implement a Lead Exposure Control Plan outlining –Engineering methods (ventilation, isolation) –Administrative methods (personal hygiene practices) –PPE (respirators, protective clothing)

55 Heavy equipment, power tools and external traffic creates high sound levels during operations. Reduce exposure to noise by: –Sequencing work to keep workers distant from loud equipment –Using spoil piles, parked machinery, etc. as a sound barrier –Prescribing ear protection Train workers on asphalt and concrete hazards and their prevention Provide training on mitigation of heat and cold related hazards Additional Safety Considerations

56 Follow proper housekeeping practices to reduce trips and slips Train workers on safe lifting procedures to prevent back injuries. Material handling equipment (e.g. hooks, bars, rollers, and jacks) should be used when it is unsafe to lift manually Safe procedures should be followed for cranes and rigging operations Additional Safety Considerations

57 Hand and power tools shall be used, inspected, and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer ’ s instructions, and shall be used only for the designed purpose Workers should be trained on the recognition and prevention of electrical hazards Design of support and shield systems shall be selected for excavations in accordance with OSHA Standard Additional Safety Considerations

58 A project - specific written hazard communication program should be established. Copies of this program must be available to all workers Appropriate fall protection and prevention procedures must be in place for work performed at an elevation of 6 feet or higher Precautions must also be taken against falling objects Appropriate PPE shall be worn at all times as required Additional Safety Considerations

59 In many cases, workers do not use all required PPE. In the pictures, the workers are not using hard hats and high visibility vests.

60 Worker is not wearing his safety vest Worker is not wearing his steel-toed boots.

61 No hard hat

62 For further information on additional safety considerations, refer to the following OSHA standards: Occupational noise exposure Hazard Communication Lead Permit-required confined spaces Overhead lines Underground lines Housekeeping 1926 Subpart K Electric - General 1926 Subpart E - Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment 1926 Subpart M - Fall Protection 1926 Subpart I – Tools – Hand and Power 1926 Subpart P – Excavations Applicable Standards

63 MIOSHA –Section B Construction -CS Part 9 - Excavation, trenching, shoring -CS Part 19 - Tools -CS Part 45 - Fall Protection -CS Part 6 - Personal Protective Equipment -CS Part 16 - Power transmission and distribution -CS Part 17 - Electrical Installation -CS Part 42 - Hazard Communication -GI Part 90 - Confined space entry -OH Part Lead exposure -OH Part Noise exposure.

64 CALOSHA –Subchapter 4 Construction Safety Orders (Sections ) –Article 3 – General –Sections( ) –Article 6 - Excavations Sections( ) –Article 24 –Fall Protection –Article 28 – Miscellaneous Construction Tools and Equipment Sections ( ) –Article 33- Electrical Requirements for Construction Work CALOSHA –Subchapter 7 –General Industry Safety Orders (Sections ) –Article 105 – Control of Noise Exposure-sections ( ) –Article 109-Hazardous Substance and Processes (Hazard Communication –Sections 5194, Lead – Section 5198 ) –Article108 – Confined Space –Sections (5156 –5159) Applicable Standards

65 Sample Photographs

66 Picture showing roadway work space in close proximity to motoring traffic

67 Barrels offset too far onto the lane

68 Worker shifting the offset drums inside.

69 Pedestrian in the work zone? Pedestrian crossing locations should be provided where necessary.

70 Equipment operator parked the equipment in central left turn lane, went to adjacent work space and now has come back to move it. This is not an expected situation by drivers in the work zone

71 Improper separation between working equipment and motoring traffic lane

72 Worker should not be hanging on construction vehicle. Note the improper clothing. Worker should not be talking on his cell phone near the roadway

73 Equipment too close to traffic

74 Worker between excavator, loader and moving traffic

75 Moving traffic close to loading truck and excavator

76 Loader with loaded material and moving traffic together

77 Excavator too close to through lane

78 Questionable physical separation between through traffic and heavy equipment – space for swing radius of the equipment is a problem

79 Continuous physical separation between through traffic and equipment should be provided where necessary

80 Workers working under operating crane; vehicle parked inside work space; and workers without hard hats and safety vests

81 A worker with a jack hammer close to through lane – Chipping hazard to moving traffic

82 Summary Injury potential is extremely high in highway and street construction work zones Half of highway and street construction workers are killed by construction trucks and equipment Development of Internal Traffic Control Plans is essential for safe operations inside the work space It is imperative to eliminate conflicting movements of trucks, equipment and workers Most of the construction site hazards also exist inside the work space


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