Presentation on theme: "Safe Operations and Internal Traffic Control in the Work Space"— Presentation transcript:
1 Safe Operations and Internal Traffic Control in the Work Space Module 2:Safe Operations and Internal Traffic Control in the Work Space
2 Overview of Module 2 Introduction and Background Hazards in Work Space Facts and statisticsCase studiesHazards in Work SpacePreventative MeasuresDevelopment of Internal Traffic Control Plans (ITCPs)Safe operation and maintenance of heavy equipment and motor vehiclesNight workAdditional safety considerationsApplicable StandardsSummary
3 Introduction and Background Highway and street construction (H&SC) workers are exposed to injury and fatality riskThe work is in proximity to construction equipment, as well as passing trafficThe module covers,Hazards in the work spaceInjury prevention with an emphasis on Internal Traffic Control Plans (ITCP)
4 Typical Work Activities Within Work Space These photographs show typical work activities that occur within a highway work zone, including roadway resurfacing/rehabilitation work (as shown in the two photographs on the left side), and trenching work as shown in the photograph on the right side.
5 Typical work zone activities This photograph depicts a typical work zone located on a suburban expressway. It can be seen that numerous different activities are taking place throughout the work area, requiring different types equipment and various levels of complexities. Yet all the work activities are taking place in a confined area, since the majority of travel lanes are open to the motorists.Typical work zone activities
6 Facts and StatisticsInjury and fatality exposures are extremely high in highway work zonesEach year, over 100 H&SC workers are killed and more than 20,000 are injuredHalf of the H&SC workers are killed by construction trucks and equipmentOn-foot workers represent approximately 57% of the worker fatalities in work zonesMore than 30% of fatalities involve equipment operatorsHighway and street construction workers are at risk of fatal and serious injury when working in the vicinity of passing motorists, construction vehicles, and equipment.Statistics shows that over 100 workers are killed and in excess of 20,000 are injured each year in highway and street construction work zones. Among them, about half are killed by construction trucks or equipment. On-foot workers represent approximately 57% of the worker fatalities in work zones; another 30% of the fatalities involve equipment operators.Imagine the injury potential created by the energy generated by even a small vehicle of 3000 pounds of steel, plastic, and glass with blunt or sharp body shapes traveling at 60 mph and coming into contact with workers protected with only a hard hat, mesh vest and leather boots. Such a collision is often catastrophic.
7 Case Study #1A 39-year-old construction laborer was killed after falling down from moving front-end loaderVictim was working with the loader operator laying asphalt around manhole covers.Victim was riding on the front-end loader battery box. He grabbed the forward/reverse control lever. Operator told victim to stop; he went ahead and pulled it anyway.The machine immediately stopped and reversed direction As a result, he fell from the loader 3 feet, and was run over by it.39 –year-old construction laborer killed after falling underneath the wheel of a moving front-end loader.Worker was working with a front-end loader operator to chip and fill in the asphalt around manhole covers in an area that was about to be repaved.As workers completed work on a manhole near a T intersection the driver was moving the front-end loader to the next manhole, which was approximately 50 yards away. The victim was riding on the front-end loader on the battery box (part of the side step that leads to the driver’s compartment). The driver of the front-end loader stated that the victim grabbed the forward reverse control lever; the driver told the victim to stop. But the victim continued and grabbed the lever and pulled it. The machine immediately stopped and reversed direction. As a result the victim fell from the loader onto the ground, a distance of 3 feet, where the front wheel of the loader ran over his chest. Police and EMS units transported the victim to a local trauma center where emergency surgery was performed. The victim was pronounced dead seven hours later. The medical examiner determined that the cause of death was hemorrhagic shock due to multiple injuries.To prevent similar incidents and fatalities, investigators made the following recommendations:Employees should develop, implement, and enforce a comprehensive safety program with the assistance of a joint labor/ management safety committeeEmployers should conduct periodic job safety meetings and refresher trainingManufacturers of construction equipment should consider installing an interlock system that prevents heavy equipment from suddenly reversing directionEmployers should not tolerate any foolishness, and instruct their employees that this type of behavior has no place on a construction site
8 Case Study #2A 55-year-old highway department supervisor died after being struck by a backing dump truck at a multi-lane highway work zone.The crew was filling potholes and laying down asphalt over the repair.The supervisor crossed into the lane of the oncoming truck; the driver did not see him and backed over him.Victim was pronounced dead at the scene.55-year-old highway department supervisor died from injuries after being struck by a reversing dump truck at a multi-lane highway repair work zone.The incident occurred on a highway that was heavily traveled and was six lanes wide with a center line divider.The crews’ objective was to fill potholes and lay down a new layer of asphalt over the repair. On the day of the incident, cones had been placed to close all three lanes of travel as well as the entrance ramp.The driver of the dump truck involved in the incident was directed to the start of the patch area. The spotter set the chains on the dump gate. The driver was then instructed to raise the bed of the truck and begin spreading the load of asphalt.At the end of the patch the driver lowered the bed and pulled forward and parked next to the oil distributor truck. The victim instructed the spotter as well as the driver to lay down another patch beside the first one. The supervisor turned and walked along the shoulder. The driver and the distributor decided that the dump truck, then the oil distributor truck, would back up to the starting point of the patch. The dump truck pulled to the rightmost traffic lane and started backing up. The supervisor crossed from the shoulder into the lane used by the truck, the driver of the truck did not see the victim and backed over him. The victim was pronounced dead at the scene. Results from the autopsy report indicated the cause of death as blunt head and chest trauma.To prevent similar incidents and fatalities, investigators made the following recommendations:Employers should ensure that mobile equipment is equipped with well-maintained audible backup alarms that warn pedestrians and on-foot workers of impending equipment movementEmployers should ensure that work procedures minimize or eliminate pedestrians’ exposure to hazards from moving vehicles and mobile equipment, and should enforce existing policies that establish pedestrian-free zonesNIOSH recommends that employers should consider providing personal audible alarms to on–foot workers who are exposed to hazards of vehicle movement
9 Hazards in the Work Space Worker being struck by or caught in/between equipmentElectrocution due to contact with overhead and underground power linesFalls on the same level or down to lower levelsHealth exposures (noise, silica, lead)Environmental exposures (heat, cold, humidity, etc.)Poor visibility exacerbates these hazardsUntrained workers are particularly vulnerable.Workers are exposed to several hazards during highway and street construction operations. Depending upon the complexity and size of the site, the hazards vary. Since no two construction sites are the same, the types of hazards can be different even for similar types of work activities. Typical hazards observed in the work space within the work zone include:Worker being struck by or caught in/between equipmentElectrocution due to contact with overhead and underground power linesFalls on the same level or falls to lower levelsWorker injury from overexertion and/or poor body positionsHealth hazards such as those introduced by noise, silica, and leadEnvironmental exposures, e.g. heat, cold, humidity, etc.Poor visibility exacerbates these hazards. Untrained workers are particularly vulnerable
10 Struck by and Caught in/between Hazards On-foot workers close to construction vehicles and equipment in tight areasOperators being caught in running equipment when collision or overturning occursFlaggers being struck by or caught in between vehicles and construction equipmentOn–foot workers in work zones often find themselves in close proximity to construction vehicles and equipment in limited areas, making themselves susceptible to being struck by or caught in between vehicles and construction equipment.Construction equipment operators risk injury or death due to overturning, collision of the equipment, or being caught in running equipment, when collision or overturning occurs.Personnel directing construction traffic (e.g. flaggers) are also vulnerable; they may be struck or caught in between vehicles and construction equipment.
11 Health and Environmental Hazards Affect workers who may or may not be involved in the activity creating the hazardSubstances like silica dust and lead can create adverse health effectsConstruction and traffic noise can cause hearing lossExtreme cold can cause frostbite or hypothermia, and hot weather can cause heat stressSome hazards may seem harmless but still pose a threat to the health of the workers. Noise, silica, and lead all pose hazards that may affect a worker even when he/she is not necessarily involved in the work creating the hazard.A worker in the workspace may be ill-prepared for and unprotected from a hazard created by others. For instance, unless exposures are controlled sandblasting lead-based paint on a bridge can pose a health hazard to an equipment operator moving earth in the vicinity.Some work place chemicals and substances can create adverse health effects when workers are exposed to them, leading to both short and long-term problems. Short-term problems may go away when worker is moved away from the harmful substance. Long-term effects involve serious health problems that may result in severe trauma or death.Examples of short-term effects: Coughing, skin and eye irritation, irritation of nose, throat and lungs, impaired sensesExamples of long-term effects: Damage to major organs( brain, liver, kidneys, heart, lungs), damage to nervous system, cancerAs in all construction operations, noise is a common hazard on highway and street construction sites. However, worse effects in highway and street construction operations are exacerbated by the addition of traffic noise to that of construction equipment.Noise is particularly dangerous, because it can hide sounds, such as back-up alarms, that may warn workers on impending dangers.Highway and street construction workers are often exposed to environmental exposures such as heat, cold and sun.Most cold–related worker fatalities result from failure to escape low air temperatures, or from immersion in low temperature water that leads to hypothermia or frostbiteHigh temperature can result in health effects ranging from transient heat fatigue, heat stroke, physical discomfort, reduced efficiency, personal injury, increased accident probability to serious illness or death
12 Hazards due to Poor Visibility and Inadequate Lighting Night work and inclement weather produce poor visibilityNight work presents problemsReduced visibilityDriver impairment or inattentionFatigue and sleepinessLack of adequate lighting magnifies the problemNight work and inclement weather conditions are the main causes of poor visibility.Contracts often require highway construction work to be performed at night to minimize the impact of construction on daytime travel.Night work presents problems such as reduced visibility, and driver impairment or inattention.Lack of adequate lighting magnifies these hazards.Problems listed above are not only applicable to motorists and flaggers, but also applicable to construction workers in the work space.Night workers are often tired and sleepy because of their work schedule,Being overly tired makes it difficult to concentrate, which increases the possibility of errors leading to accidents.
13 Untrained Workers Untrained workers are more vulnerable to injuries Not using Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)Improper use of PPEUnsafe work practicesMacho behavior, horseplayUntrained workers are more vulnerable to injuries. This is because they do not have proper training in hazard recognition and prevention while performing the work. The following situations can occur when the workers are untrained:Not using or improper use of PPE: either using the PPE improperly (e.g. using the wrong respirator for the task) or not using it at all while working (e.g. not wearing a hard hat).Unsafe work practices: the worker does not know the safe operating procedures for a particular task.Macho behavior: This often leads to taking unnecessary risks; it also inspires others to behave similarly.
14 Other Site HazardsElectrocution due to contact with overhead and underground power lines (Refer to Module No. 4)Highway construction materials like asphalt and concrete pose physical hazards to workers, such as burns, splashing wet material in the eye, etc.Strains and sprains due to overexertion and poor body positionsSlips, trips, and falls due to poor housekeepingFall from elevation and falling objectsContact with overhead power lines and underground utilities may cause electrocution. (Refer to Module No. 4)Strains or sprains while lifting objects or working in awkward positions while handling materials and tools are commonly observed among highway and street construction workers. (Overexertion and poor body positions)Poor housekeeping of the work space can cause the workers to slip, trip, or fall.Slip, trips and falls cause 15% of all accidental deaths in the general industry.Falls from elevation can be observed mostly in bridge construction and excavations.Highway and street construction workers may also be exposed to falling objects, such as debris, tools, etc.The inherent risks of working in and around roadway traffic or heavy equipment may become routine for the construction worker and warning alarms may no longer provide the intended warning to on-foot workers. (e.g. backup alarms from equipment working on construction sites become background)
15 Preventive MeasuresOperating and maintaining heavy equipment and trucks using safe procedures (Refer to Module No. 3)Implementing safe procedures for night work, and low visibilitySafety protocols for preventing occupational health and environmental hazardsFall protection and preventionDeveloping a dynamic Internal Traffic Control Plan (ITCP) to prevent worker – equipment - traffic conflicts during construction
16 Development of Internal Traffic Control Plans What is an ITCP?Why develop ITCPs?How to develop an ITCP?What are the elements of an ITCP?
17 What is an INTERNAL Traffic Control Plan (ITCP)? Plan for coordinating the flow of construction vehicles, equipment, and workers operating within the work spaceFor improved safety within the work zoneA typical ITCP addressesParking issues within the work spaceSafe entry and exit of heavy equipment and trucks to and from the work spaceInteractions of heavy equipment, trucks, and on-foot workers.Definition: An internal traffic control plan (ITCP) is a plan that is used to coordinate the flow of construction vehicles, equipment, and workers working in close proximity within the activity area, so that the safety of the workers and operators is ensured.An ITCP addresses the interaction of heavy equipment, trucks, and on-foot workers commonly experienced within the work space associated with work zones.ITCP also addresses the safe entry and exit of construction equipment and trucks to and from the work area in the work zone.ITCP can additionally address the parking issues within the work space for workers; public road crossings for worker access on the site, and safe operations on the haul roads.
18 Why Develop ITCPs?Provide an organized plan to coordinate movements in the work areaMinimize dangerous operationsBacking and operating near soft shouldersUnguarded holes and slopesPrevent injuries and fatalities, while providing efficient operationsITCPs are designed to provide workers, supply vehicles, and construction equipment operators with an organized plan to coordinate movement in the work area.Well designed ITCPs will minimize dangerous vehicle operations, such as backing and equipment operation near soft shoulders, unguarded holes and slopes.ITCPs are adopted and enforced to reduce the hazards in the work area and prevent injuries and fatalities, while providing efficient operations.
19 Developing an ITCPDevelopment and implementation of an ITCP should be required for all major jobsMust accommodate changing requirements in various stages of constructionShould incorporate all relevant input/feedback from employeesMust be developed in coordination with the overall traffic control planA traffic control officer/ traffic control plan specialist/ site safety officer should initiate and coordinate the development and implementation of an ITCP for all job sites.Each stage of the construction project may affect the design of the ITCP; consequently, the plan must be developed to accommodate changing requirements.The traffic control plan specialist (or designated person) must be flexible in approach and seek input from workers, on-site representatives, construction managers, and other reliable sources in order to gain a grasp of the schedule and be able to adjust the plan at appropriate times during the project.An ITCP is usually developed once the work zone temporary traffic control plan has been established.Once the ITCP has been developed, it should ensure that the ITCP is coordinated with the overall work zone temporary traffic control plan.
20 Developing an ITCP Basic principles of ITCP for conflicting movements Separation by spaceSeparation by timeControlsSchematic diagrams needed for movement of construction workers, vehicles and equipment in the work spaceITCPs should be developed for all medium, large, and multi-contractor jobs. For small recurrent operations such as filling potholes, routine maintenance, and mowing, a checklist could be used in place of a complete ITCP.Schematic diagrams should be developed depicting the movement of construction workers, vehicles and equipments within the workspace.The basic guiding principles of internal traffic control is separation of conflicting movements of vehicles, workers and equipment. This can be accomplished by:Separation by spaceSeparation by timeControls
21 Elements of an ITCP Typically, an ITCP should cover Roles and responsibilities of partiesSite specific informationCommunication planSchematic diagramsHazard assessmentsTraining of site personnel on ITCPEffectiveness evaluation
22 Elements of an ITCP – Roles and Responsibilities Chain of commandAn ITCP coordinator assigned to the projectEstablish coordinator’s role and authorityEstablish employees’ roles in implementing the ITCPAn ITCP should include the roles and responsibilities of personnel, including the chain of command (delegation of authority).An ITCP coordinator should be assigned to each job site who will be charged with immediately responding to hazardous situations on the site. The employer should authorize the coordinators to make adaptive changes and/or halt operations as needed to ensure worker safety.The ITCP also discusses the roles and responsibilities of the employees in implementing the ITCP, especially in recognizing, reporting and eliminating safety hazards.
23 Elements of an ITCP – Project Specific Information Contact information (company personnel, emergency services, etc.)Location, time table, and scope of projectOn-site equipment and personnelInterface between internal and external traffic control plansAn ITCP should include information specific to a particular project and site. This covers contact information of company personnel, other on-site contractors, the contracting agency, and emergency response services, which should be posted on site. The ITCP should also include the location, time table, and scope of the project, along with all the on-site equipment and personnel. The interface between internal and external traffic control plans is an essential part of the internal traffic control plan, and must be clearly delineated.
24 Elements of an ITCP – Hazard Assessment and Control Checklist of site specific hazards and mitigation methodsReporting system for incidents (and close calls)Safe procedures for traffic control in work spaceAnticipated traffic volumes, speeds, and speed limitsSpecifications for lightingSafe speed limits, clearances from high voltage power lines, blind corners , warnings of drop-off hazards, etc.An ITCP should include the checklist of site-specific hazards with descriptions of how these hazards will be minimized: through safe operating procedures, safety equipment, and control strategies.An ITCP should have reporting requirements for all incidents including close calls. It should incorporate a plan for safely handling intermittent traffic stoppages.It should also include the anticipated traffic volume, speed and the speed limits for the operation within the work space. Safe speed limits shall be posted and enforced in all areas within the work zone. Examples of other signs are clearances below high voltage lines, blind corners, and warnings for drop-off hazards for machine operators.In addition, an ITCP should include specifications for lighting in the work space as required for night time work activities.
25 Elements of an ITCP – Communication Plan Designated channels of communication for any changes in planMeans of communications between on-foot workers, equipment operators, truck drivers, and other personnelDesignation of personnel to monitor communications between vehicle and equipment operatorsEffective communication is very important in the work space. An ITCP should include a communication plan that contains the following:Designated channels of communication regarding changes in the ITCPA means for on-foot workers to communicate with equipment operators, truck drivers, and other personnel in charge of controlling or coordinating the flow of traffic and equipment entering and leaving the work space and the movement of heavy equipment within work spaceA means for personnel like grader operators, dozer operators, scraper operators, and truck drivers to communicate with each other and with the general contractor and subcontractor personnelDesignated personnel responsible for monitoring on-site communications between vehicle equipment and equipment operators
26 Elements of an ITCP – ITCP Diagrams Typically includeStandard symbols for pieces of equipment and project personnel on siteA layout of the work space positioned in the overall work zoneLocations of proximate traffic control devices (e.g. drums, cones, etc.)Areas around equipment and operations prohibited to on-foot workers
27 Elements of an ITCP – ITCP Diagrams Also, diagrams showingLocations for staging, storing and servicing materials and equipmentLocations of visitor and worker parking areasDimensions and locations of lateral buffer zonesDescription of internal signage and all internal traffic control devicesA typical internal traffic control plan includes a diagram showing the various activity areas within the work space. The diagrams include:Standard symbols for pieces of equipment and project personnel that will be on siteOverview of how the activity area fits within the temporary traffic control planLocations of proximate traffic control devicesDelineated areas around specific pieces of equipment and operations where on-foot workers are prohibited (e.g., swing radius of an excavator, blind areas of a dump truck, etc.)The ITCP diagrams also include:Locations for storing and servicing materials and equipmentLocation of parking for visitors and workersSize and location of lateral buffer zones within the work spaceDescription of internal signage and all internal traffic control devices
28 Sample Internal Traffic Control Plan for 30 ft trenchPedestrian free areaSample Internal Traffic Control Plan forTrenching Work in a Highway Work Zone60 ft backfillVehicle free areaThis slide shows a simple internal traffic control plan for a work zone that includes trenching activities. This diagram shows the points of ingress and egress for trucks, location of equipment, as well as areas that should be avoided by pedestrians/workers and/or other areas, due to the hazards they may be exposed to.Source: Graham - Migletz
29 Elements of an ITCP - Training Training is essential for all personnelOrientation of truck drivers to work space activities and ITCPTraining delivered throughTool box safety meetingsDistribution of site-specific safety materials (e.g. a copy of ITCP, safety guidelines)Self-paced e-trainingTraining is essential for all personnel for the implementation of the ITCP for each project.The training component of ITCP includes the training materials and procedures for effectively implementing the internal traffic control plan. The training part of the ITCP include the following:A procedure for orienting independent truck drivers to the work space and the ITCP (e.g., staging area locations)Distributing the site specific safety materials, including a copy of the ITCP and safety guidelines for on-foot workers, to all drivers and visitors coming in to the work space (usually at the entrances). Other means of communicating this information include the tool box safety meetings, faxing the ITCP to other employers who will be on site, and distributing the ITCP to truck drivers at the loading facilityProvision to ensure that contracting agency staff understand the ITCP for each project so that they can comply with the ITCP when they travel to a work site during inspections
30 Elements of an ITCP – Effectiveness Evaluation Comprehensive approachReview of ITCP during normal work zone inspectionsReview and analyze incidents, close calls, and potential hazardsRetain schematic drawings and other documents for future useAn ITCP should include an approach for evaluation of effectiveness of implemented ITCP. This includes:Evaluation of the effectiveness of the ITCP throughout the project, noting the changes required as the project evolvesInspection of the ITCP during the normal work zone inspectionsA continuous process for reviewing incidents, close calls, and potential hazards involving workers and equipment within the work space and for elimination of reported hazardsDocumenting and retaining the schematic drawings and other documents for use in developing the future ITCPs
31 A pick up truck parked behind the dump truck A pick up truck parked behind the dump truck. Lack of proper planning for parking causes workers to park in improper and unsafe locations inside work space.
32 An existing lane closed to traffic is utilized as an acceleration lane for trucks, but canalization is done improperly. No designated exit point for trucks.
33 Limited work space - a challenge for internal traffic control and operations
34 Employee vehicle parked near equipment, and blocking the truck route
36 Safe Operation & Maintenance of Heavy Equipment and Trucks in Work Space Safe Equipment Operation around On-foot WorkersConflicting Movements of Trucks, Equipment and WorkersTurning Radius and GeometrySafe Operation and Maintenance of Equipment
37 Safe Equipment Operation Around On-foot Workers Separate on-foot workers from equipment as much as possibleDesign the work space and operations to eliminate/minimize backing and blind spotsTrain workers and equipment operators on communication methodsWhen necessary, use a spotter so the vehicles do not run over workers or back into other vehiclesThe planning of work shall be done in such a way that the workers on foot do not work very close to the working/running equipment/trucks. The following practiced should be adopted to avoid injuries:Schedule work tasks, whenever possible, to keep on-foot workers out of areas where heavy equipment is in useSeparate work space and moving traffic by physical barriers wherever possible. If this is not possible due to space limitation, only one activity shall be performed at a time with highest alert. Provide a buffer space between the moving traffic and work space besides separating them by physical barriersDesign the workspace to eliminate or decrease backing movements and blind spots; when feasible, pull the trucks in and let the operation catch up to themChannelize dump trucks leaving the work space and keep on-foot workers out of their pathUse a spotter while backing the trucks/equipment. The duty of the spotter must be just to monitor so the trucks/equipment do not run over the on-foot workers or hit other vehiclesUse flexible, colored poles (like those used for snowplow markers) or temporary pavement marking inside the workspace to point pedestrian-free areas or flow-of-traffic lines. These delineators should be installed so that the public will not notice or respond to them, but the workers will recognize them as guide spotsTrain subcontractors, crews, operators, and truck drivers to understand all symbols, markers, and colors used to separate on-foot workers from equipment within the workspaceTrain on-foot workers and equipment operators in appropriate communication methods to be used (e.g., using hand signals and maintaining visual contact) when on-foot workers are required to be in the same area as the equipmentTrain equipment operators never to move equipment without making positive visual contact with all on-foot workers near the equipmentOperators working in the work space should check for blind spots; the larger the vehicles/equipment the larger the blind spots
38 Workers working too close to working equipment against a barrier “pinch point”Workers working too close to working equipment against a barrierShows an extremely hazardous condition where an on-foot worker is working very close to operating equipment, and is in a tight space between the equipment and the barrier.Never work so close to operating equipment, especially when there is a “pinch point”.
39 Conflicting Movements of Trucks, Equipment and Workers Conflicts create potential for accidentsConflicts betweenTrucks and trucksTrucks and equipmentTrucks and on-foot workersEquipment and on-foot workersEquipment and equipmentThe basic cause of a conflict is that two or more objects attempt to occupy the same space at the same time. In the work space, when there is a conflict, there is a chance of an accident.The major conflicts in work zone can be between:Trucks and trucksTrucks and equipmentTrucks and workers on footEquipment and workers on footEquipment and equipmentThe severity of potential accidents varies depending upon the speed and size of the trucks or equipment. However, most of the time, the accidents involving truck(s) or equipment and worker(s) on foot produce severe injuries or fatalities.
40 Conflicting Movements of Trucks, Equipment and Workers Minimize conflicting interactions as much as possibleSeparation by spaceSeparation by timeDetermine the locations of and design various internal movementsEntry and exit locations for trucks and equipmentTruck and equipment routes within work spaceOther activity locations and pedestrian paths (e.g., rest room locations, site office, etc.)Since conflicts between trucks, equipment and workers can cause accidents and resulting injuries, the best way to avoid the potential injuries is to avoid conflicts among them as much as possible.The interactions among the equipment, trucks and workers are minimized by separations. These can be:Separation by space which is also called physical separationSeparation by time, mainly by schedulingAnother way of minimizing the conflicts within the work spaces is to determine the locations of various internal movements by designingEntry and exit locations for trucks and equipmentEquipment paths within work spaceTruck paths within work spaceOther activity locations (e.g., rest rooms, site office, and pedestrian paths in the work space)
41 Conflicting Movements of Trucks, Equipment and Workers Separation by spaceUse channelizing devices, such as barriersSeparate activities (e.g., excavating, grading, staging, etc.)Separation by timeSchedule work with safety in mindArrival and departure of trucksLoading and unloadingCombination of both approachesControl of Interactions Between Trucks, Equipment and Workers:Physical separations between movements of trucks, equipment and workers is a way of eliminating the conflicts. Wherever possible, endeavors shall be made to control the interactions by separation.One of the ways to control the interactions is separating them by space (physical separations). This includes:Separation using channelizing devicesSeparating work spaces for each activityLocating equipment/truck paths away from on-foot workersThe other way of separating the interactions is separating them by time. This can be done by:Work schedulingArrival and departure scheduling of trucksScheduling of loading and unloading equipmentCombination of both approaches, that is separation by both space and time, should be considered whenever possible.
42 Collisions within the work zone involving construction trucks and/or equipment
43 Conflicting Movements of Trucks, Equipment and Workers Properly design the elements of internal traffic control that cause conflictsSafe entry and exit pointsSpeed change lanesDeceleration laneAcceleration laneTurning radius and geometryTraffic control devicesDesign the locations of Various Internal Movements:To reduce the conflicting movements, all the locations of internal traffic movements shall be designed properly. Among such locations, entry and exit points of the work space within the work zone, acceleration and deceleration lanes and internal movement paths are important. While designing such locations, turning radii and traffic control devices shall be duly considered for effective functioning.The locations of entry and exit points of the work space within the work zone requires keen attention. The design of acceleration and deceleration lanes are required to minimize the conflict due to speed differential between the moving traffic and merging or diverging trucks from the through traffic. Turning radius and geometry vary for different truck sizes. Appropriate traffic control devices at the entry and exit points minimizes the risk of accidents at the interfaces of internal and external traffic zones.The details of the designs are explained in the following slides.
44 Conflicting Movements of Trucks, Equipment and Workers Design of entry and exit pointsConsideration of roadway geometryLocations of existing drivewaysAccess design and managementEntry and Exit Points:The design of entry and exit points for construction trucks and equipment to and from the roadway within the work zone is extremely important to minimize the conflicts between the moving traffic and equipment.Wherever possible, the entry and exit points shall not be located where:The geometry of the roadway is irregularThere are other driveways or entry and exit points very close to the proposed entry and exit pointThe sight distance is insufficient for the moving traffic for the designated work zone speedThe location is such that deceleration and acceleration lanes can not be providedThe points are to be selected by a competent traffic control and operation specialist. The access management guidelines and principles can be useful for providing safe and efficient entry and exit points in work zone.The exit and entry points shall be physically separated from the through lanes. Separate points for exit and entry cause minimum conflicts.
45 Conflicting Movements of Trucks, Equipment and Workers Design of deceleration and acceleration lanesLength of speed change lanesSpeed of trucksTerminal speed at entry/exit pointCruise/operating speed (speed of roadway traffic)Separate entry and exit points to reduce conflictsThe drivers of trucks entering a highway/street from an exit point in the work zone accelerate until attaining the desired through traffic speed. Because the change in speed is usually substantial, provisions should be made for acceleration. The same applies for the trucks decelerating to take the exit to enter into the work space. A safe acceleration and deceleration is accomplished only if auxiliary lanes are provided to minimize interference with through traffic which will reduce crash potential.A speed change lane should have sufficient length to enable the driver to make the appropriate change in speed between the highway and work zone entry/exit point. Moreover, in the case of acceleration lane, there should be additional length to permit adjustment of speed for through vehicles and trucks so that the truck driver can position himself entering into the gap in the through-traffic stream and maneuver into it before reaching the end of the acceleration lane.The speed change lanes can be of two types:Taper typeParallel typeThe taper type speed change lane provides direct entry or exit at a flat angle, where as the parallel type speed change lane has an added lane for changing speed. Although, both types function satisfactorily when properly designed, the parallel type is more preferred.“A policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets”, version 2001, published by American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHTO) provides tables for the length of acceleration and deceleration lanes. Although the design lengths provided in this document can not be directly applied to the work zone acceleration and deceleration lane, they can provide some intuition to the designer for the length of the speed change lanes.
46 Rigid BarriersTaper LengthWork SpaceA Typical Diagram Showing an Acceleration Lane
47 Turning Radius and Geometry Turning radius and geometry at entry and exit pointsVaries with the type of vehiclesOff trackingLarger vehicles - larger off trackingOff tracking can cause injuries/fatalitiesTurning radii must be designed by a qualified personGeometric design specialistThe turning radius, also called ‘turning curb radius’ of a vehicle is the circular arc formed by the turning path radius of the front outside tire of the vehicle.Trucks and heavy equipment negotiating a curve require a sufficiently large turning radius. Since construction traffic is composed of mostly trucks and heavy equipment, the turning radius at the entry and exit points to or from the work space must be designed accordingly.Offtracking, which is more frequently observed in larger vehicles, is the difference in the paths of the front and rear wheels of a tractor/semitrailer as it negotiates a turn. This is because the path of the rear tires of a turning truck does not coincide with that of the front tires.If the turning radius is insufficient, offtracking will cause to encroachment into the extra space of the roadway, not allocated during design, thus causing hazards at that area.Note that injuries resulting from the offtracking of trucks to workers and others due to insufficient turning radius may be quite serious.
48 Turning radius for trucks should be designed properly
49 This figure shows the turning characteristics of a typical tractor/semi-trailer combination truck. Refer to “A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2001” for details.
50 This figure shows the minimum turning path for Intermediate Semitrailer (WB-12 [WB-40]) Design Vehicle.Refer to “A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2001” for details.
51 Safe Operation and Maintenance of Equipment Only authorized personnel must operate or repair equipmentMust be trained in safetyPerform daily inspections and make the necessary repairsKeep operator manuals in the equipment cab and provide ready accessEquipment with poorly functioning safety devices (e.g. backing signals, head and tail lights, etc.) are unsafe to operateComply with OSHA Standard: 1926 Subpart O - Motor Vehicles, Mechanized Equipment, and Marine OperationsHeavy equipment and motor vehicle operators must be trained in the safe operation of their equipment (See “Heavy Equipment “ module for detailed information)Each equipment or vehicle operator must have a valid driver’s license.Allow equipment to be operated or repaired only by persons who have been trained and authorized to work with that piece of equipmentA designated supervisor must ensure that inspections are performed daily, that necessary repairs are made, that scheduled maintenance is performed, and that records of all inspections and repairs are maintained.(Develop checklists to make equipment inspections easier.)Require employees to report equipment problems to a designated person and give employees the authority to shut down unsafe equipment without repercussion.When repairs are made on site, require that the operator’s controls are made inoperable so that the equipment cannot be started by another worker while repairs are being made.Ensure ready access to repair manuals by maintenance personnel at all work locations. (Contact the equipment manufacturer to obtain operator and repair manuals when purchasing used equipment.)Keep operator manuals in the equipment cab.Unsafe equipment operating in the work zone pose severe hazards. Althoughthe equipment may be properly running mechanically,the lack of safety devices make itunsafe to operate.Some of the unsafe equipment conditions are:No backing signals or signals not working – lack of backing signals is an obvious hazard since the worker working around can not hear that the equipment is backing and may not be alertAbsence of flashing lights – this is especially helpful in night work informing the workers around the equipment to be alertHead and tail lights not working in the equipment presents an obvious hazard to workers, as well as other equipment and their operators
52 Safe Procedures for Night Work Worker Responsibilities:Stay alertGet plenty of rest. Don’t carry on daytime activities and then work a night shiftBe aware of surroundings, and the operations around your work areaWear high visibility apparelIn construction work, the key to remaining safe and healthy on the job is to understand the hazards that one faces and to remain alert to avoid conditions that may lead to dangerous situations. When doing night work, the challenge to remain attentive is even greater because of poor visibility, fatigue and sleepiness.The following practices may be useful to night shift workers:Get plenty of rest.Don’t carry on daytime activities and then work a night shiftBe aware of your surroundings and the operations adjacent to your work area. Dangerous conditions are more difficult to see at nightWear high visibility garments. Make yourself visible to fellow workers as well as to motorists
53 Safe Procedures for Night Work Operations Management ResponsibilitiesImprove worker and equipment visibilityEnforce use of hard hats with retroreflective material and retroreflective clothingEncourage using flashing and warning lights on vehicles and equipment (without distracting motorists)Plan (through ITCP) to minimize on-foot workers coming close to heavy equipmentEnsure temporary lighting for workers does not distract motoristsIn order to reduce hazards related to night time work, employers should:Improve worker and work vehicle visibilityRequire all workers to wear hard hats that have retroreflective material visible from all sidesConsider ways to make retroreflective clothing visible through the full range of body motionsEncourage use of flashing and warning lights on work vehicles (without distracting motorists)Set up procedures to minimize on-foot worker proximity to construction trucks and equipment. Include these procedures in the internal traffic control planConsider lighting options carefully to ensure that temporary lighting for workers does not create distraction or temporary blindness to motorists
54 Additional Safety Considerations Avoid overhead power lines by maintaining the minimum clearance (10 feet or more)Before excavation, call appropriate agency to locate underground cablesUse control measures to minimize silica exposure (e.g. wet cutting/drilling, exhaust ventilation)Implement a Lead Exposure Control Plan outliningEngineering methods (ventilation, isolation)Administrative methods (personal hygiene practices)PPE (respirators, protective clothing)Avoiding overhead power lines and underground cables:A minimum clearance of 10 feet must be maintained when operating equipment near electrical lines. If minimum clearances cannot be maintained, the electrical company must be contacted to have the lines insulated, de-energized, or relocated. If contact is made, immediately secure the area and call 911.Before commencement of excavation work, the local electric company or an authorized state agency must be consulted. All buried cables shall be considered live and lethal.Refer to the “Overhead and Underground Power Lines” module for detailed information.Silica Prevention:Workers can be exposed to silica during crushing, loading, hauling and dumping of rock; during demolition of concrete or masonry structures;and during chipping, grinding, hammering and drilling of rock and concrete. Workers may also be exposed to silica from abrasive blasting where silica sand is used.Silica is considered to be toxic when particles are inhaled. Silica exposure has been associated with the silicosis disease, but silica can also cause other diseases; such as tuberculosis and lung cancer.To reduce silica exposures and prevent silicosis and silicosis- related deaths, the following preventive measures are recommended: Before drilling, cutting or blasting, assess the materials for potential worker exposure to silica, Use control measures to minimize exposures (e.g. wet cutting/drilling and exhaust ventilation), Practice personal hygiene: (Employees should wear washable or disposable protection clothes at the work site, be cautioned not to smoke, eat or drink around silica dust and wash hands before smoking, eating or drinking, and shower and change into clean clothes before leaving the work site to prevent contamination of cars, homes, and other work areas.), and Use respiratory protection specific to the hazards of silica. Dust masks do not protect against silica.Lead Prevention:Paint on bridges may contain lead. Workers can be exposed to lead when bridges are renovated, sandblasted, or demolished. (When metal coated with lead is cut, sandblasted or burned, lead can be released, potentially exposing workers to health hazards.)Lead is considered to be toxic when particles are inhaled. It can cause damage to the kidneys, brain and nerve system.The presence of lead in paint should either be ruled out by analytical testing or an Exposure Control Plan should be put into effect. An Exposure Control Plan is a document that outlines: Engineering methods used to minimize the release of lead fumes or particulates (e.g. dust reduction methods, isolating the work area, using ventilation), Administrative methods to minimize the number of employees exposed to the hazard (e.g housekeeping, elimination of dust by vacuuming, personal hygiene practices), and Use of Personal Protective Equipment (e.g. using correct respirators, protective clothing)Employees who are exposed to airborne lead above the action level (action level for an 8-hour workday is 50 g/m3) must participate in a medical surveillance program
55 Additional Safety Considerations Heavy equipment, power tools and external traffic creates high sound levels during operations. Reduce exposure to noise by:Sequencing work to keep workers distant from loud equipmentUsing spoil piles, parked machinery, etc. as a sound barrierPrescribing ear protectionTrain workers on asphalt and concrete hazards and their preventionProvide training on mitigation of heat and cold related hazardsNoise control:Heavy equipment (e.g. pavers, compressors, generators), power tools and external traffic noise create high sound levels throughout highway and street construction operations.Exposure to high noise levels can cause irreversible hearing loss or impairment. It can also create physical and psychological stress.The standard for noise exposure set by OSHA is a time-weighted-average of 90 dBA over an 8-hour day.Exposure to noise can be reduced by:Sequencing work to keep workers distant from loud equipmentUsing spoil piles, parked machinery, etc. as a sound barrierWhen employees are subjected to sound level exceeding 90 dBA, feasible administrative or engineering controls (e.g. noise monitoring program, audiometric testing, employee training) shall be utilized. If such controls fail to reduce sound level, personal protective equipment (e.g. ear muffs) should be provided.Prevention from asphalt and concrete exposure:Products (such as asphalt and concrete) used in highway and street construction present physical hazards to the workers.Asphalt hazards may include burns caused by particles and inhalation of fumes.Concrete hazards may include chemical burns, dermatitis and splashing of wet concrete (in eyes)The following safety measures apply to both asphalt and concrete construction:Providing proper protective clothing and PPE (gloves and rubber boots, face shields, safety glasses/ goggles)Respiratory protectionProviding a water source to flush skin and eyesProviding supplies for treating burns (water, gel, fire, blankets or pads)Providing training and information (warning labels, MSDS)
56 Additional Safety Considerations Follow proper housekeeping practices to reduce trips and slipsTrain workers on safe lifting procedures to prevent back injuries. Material handling equipment (e.g. hooks, bars, rollers, and jacks) should be used when it is unsafe to lift manuallySafe procedures should be followed for cranes and rigging operations
57 Additional Safety Considerations Hand and power tools shall be used, inspected, and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, and shall be used only for the designed purposeWorkers should be trained on the recognition and prevention of electrical hazardsDesign of support and shield systems shall be selected for excavations in accordance with OSHA Standard
58 Additional Safety Considerations A project - specific written hazard communication program should be established. Copies of this program must be available to all workersAppropriate fall protection and prevention procedures must be in place for work performed at an elevation of 6 feet or higherPrecautions must also be taken against falling objectsAppropriate PPE shall be worn at all times as requiredFall protection and Prevention:Employers must protect their employees from fall hazards and falling objects whenever an affected employee is 6 feet or more above a lower level. Employers must also assess the workplace to determine if the walking or working surfaces on which employees are to work have the strength and structural integrity to safely support workers. Employers need to do the following to properly provide fall protection and prevention for their workers:Where protection is required, select fall protection systems appropriate for the situation. Use proper construction and installation of safety systems, and train workers in the proper selection, use, and maintenance of fall protection systems. Fall protection systems are: Controlled Access Zones, Guardrail systems, Personal fall arrest systems, Safety net systems, Positioning device systems, Warning line systems, Safety monitoring systems, Covers for holes in floors, roofs, and other walking/working surfaces, Toeboards, and Fall Protection Plan.Best practices to prevent falls in highway and street construction operations: Determine if any of the work can be performed at ground level, or if a crane be used to lift assembled portions into place, eliminating or reducing the number of workers exposed to falling, Consider use of aerial lifts or elevated platforms to provide better working surfaces rather than walking on top of plates or beams, place covers over holes as soon as they are created if no work is being done at the hole, and follow proper housekeeping practices to reduce trips and slips.Personal Protection Equipment (PPE):Failure to use and/or wear PPE is one of the leading causes of injuries in the construction industry.Whenever hazards cannot be eliminated or controlled through comprehensive engineering or administrative methods,PPE shall be worn: Head protection: (e.g., hard hats) worn when there is a risk from falling or flying objects or particles or from other harmful contacts or exposures; Face and eye protection: (e.g., face shields, goggles, hoods) used where a hazard or risk of injury exists from flying objects or particles , harmful contacts or exposures; Hand protection: (e.g., safety gloves) employees who handle rough, sharp-edged, abrasive materials, or whose work subjects the hands to lacerations, punctures, burns, or bruises, shall wear hand protection of a type suitable for the work being performed; Ear protection: (e.g. earplugs ) worn against exposure to high noise levels.When considering use of ear protection, always consider reducing the noise source before utilizing ear protective devices; High visibility garments and apparel: all personnel exposed to vehicular traffic (motorists or construction equipment) should wear a fluorescent orange, green, yellow (or combination of three colors) warning garment. A garment worn at night shall be reflectorized. The garment shall have a 360-degree visibility in a wide range of body motions; Torso protection:(e.g., vests, jackets, aprons, coveralls and full body suits ) many hazards can threaten the torso: heat ,splashes from hot asphalt and liquids, impacts, cuts, acids, and radiation; Respiratory protection:(e.g., respirators, goggles) to control occupational diseases caused by breathing air contaminated with harmful dust, fogs, fumes, mites, gases, sprays or vapors; Fall protection: lifelines, harnesses, anchorage systems and lanyards are designed for use as fall arrest systems
59 In many cases, workers do not use all required PPE In many cases, workers do not use all required PPE . In the pictures , the workers are not using hard hats and high visibility vests.
60 Worker is not wearing his safety vest Worker is not wearing his steel-toed boots.
62 Applicable StandardsFor further information on additional safety considerations, refer to the following OSHA standards:Occupational noise exposure.Hazard CommunicationLeadPermit-required confined spacesOverhead linesUnderground linesHousekeeping1926 Subpart K Electric - General1926 Subpart E - Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment1926 Subpart M - Fall Protection1926 Subpart I – Tools – Hand and Power1926 Subpart P – Excavations
63 Applicable Standards MIOSHA –Section B Construction CS Part 9 - Excavation, trenching, shoringCS Part 19 - ToolsCS Part 45 - Fall ProtectionCS Part 6 - Personal Protective EquipmentCS Part 16 - Power transmission and distributionCS Part 17 - Electrical InstallationCS Part 42 - Hazard CommunicationGI Part 90 - Confined space entryOH Part Lead exposureOH Part Noise exposure.
64 Applicable StandardsCALOSHA –Subchapter 4 Construction Safety Orders (Sections )Article 3 – General –Sections( )Article 6 - Excavations Sections( )Article 24 –Fall ProtectionArticle 28 – Miscellaneous Construction Tools and Equipment Sections ( )Article 33- Electrical Requirements for Construction WorkCALOSHA –Subchapter 7 –General Industry Safety Orders (Sections )Article 105 – Control of Noise Exposure-sections ( )Article 109-Hazardous Substance and Processes (Hazard Communication –Sections 5194, Lead – Section 5198 )Article108 – Confined Space –Sections (5156 –5159)
69 Pedestrian in the work zone Pedestrian in the work zone? Pedestrian crossing locations should be provided where necessary.
70 This is not an expected situation by drivers in the work zone Equipment operator parked the equipment in central left turn lane, went to adjacent work space and now has come back to move it.This is not an expected situation by drivers in the work zone
71 Improper separation between working equipment and motoring traffic lane
72 Worker should not be talking on his cell phone near the roadway Worker should not be hanging on construction vehicle. Note the improper clothing.
78 Questionable physical separation between through traffic and heavy equipment – space for swing radius of the equipment is a problem
79 Continuous physical separation between through traffic and equipment should be provided where necessary
80 Workers working under operating crane; vehicle parked inside work space; and workers without hard hats and safety vests
81 A worker with a jack hammer close to through lane – Chipping hazard to moving traffic
82 SummaryInjury potential is extremely high in highway and street construction work zonesHalf of highway and street construction workers are killed by construction trucks and equipmentDevelopment of Internal Traffic Control Plans is essential for safe operations inside the work spaceIt is imperative to eliminate conflicting movements of trucks, equipment and workersMost of the construction site hazards also exist inside the work space
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