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A Howitzer and its ergonomic risk factors for the gun loader.

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1 A Howitzer and its ergonomic risk factors for the gun loader

2 A 155 mm howitzer is a cannon used on the battlefield to provide support fires to the people who need it. It is also used to create avalanches in the rocky mountains. What is a 155mm Howitzer?

3 The specifics Typetowed howitzer Place of originUnited States Service history Used by U.S. ArmyU.S. Army, USMC, Australian Army, Royal Thai Army, Lebanese ArmyUSMCAustralian ArmyRoyal Thai Army Lebanese Army Unit costUS$527,337 Specifications Weight7,154 kg (15,772 lb) Length 11 m (36 ft 2 in) in firing position; 12.3 m (40 ft 6 in) in towing position Width 2.8 m (9 ft 2 in) in towing position Height 2.9 m (9 ft 6 in) in towing position Crew9 enlisted men Caliber155 mm Rate of fire 4 round/min maximum; 2 round/min sustained Maximum range 22,400 m (14 miles) with conventional ammo; 30,000 m (18.6 miles) with rocket propelled

4 How not to use a Howitzer Explosive Composition B material packed into a thick shell which causes a large blast and sends projectiles that have a range of 16 to 17 miles. Step 1-retrieve the round Step 2-move the round to the cannon Step 3- shove the round into the tube Step 4 hook up and twist to fire

5 Job description  Howitzer Gun loaders are also known as “Gun Bunnies”  Their job is to load the round quickly and efficiently In a timely manner. So that they can support the request for fires down range.

6 Health and ergonomic risk factors  Hearing Loss(Not covered by civilian insurance anymore) 500 m to the rear it can be as loud as 140dB depending upon terrain.  Slip, trip, fall risk hazards  Awkward postures  Dropping heavy materials on body parts.  Unsafe Acts

7 Causes Hearing loss Noise-induced hearing loss can be temporary or permanent. Noise-induced permanent threshold shift is not reversible. Effects of Noise

8 Slip trip and fall hazards  Terrain isn't always the same and it can be rugged.  Can easily trip and fall and injure one’s self.  When the guns go off they kick up dust particulates and other material on the ground which make it hard to see as well as a hazard to vision.

9 Awkward posture  Is a deviation from the “neutral” body position.  A “neutral” body position is safest and most efficient position in which to work.  Awkward posture puts stress on muscles, tendons and joints.

10 Unsafe acts Some unsafe acts are Sitting on the cannon while firing. Standing in the back blast area Not digging the trench to hold the cannon in place. Howitzer fire

11 Dropping machinery Heavy machinery is involved and can injure oneself or others. Some types of items that can be dropped are the round itself 100 lbs, feed tray 5 lbs, loading rode 7 lbs, THE CANNON ITSELF!

12 Howitzers being used during wars

13 Recommendations Take the human out of the loading process by using a self propelled system. Make area as level as terrain permits. Make sure hearing protection, eye protection, and body protection is on at all times before firing. Have minimum safe distances to rest. Have someone watching for extreme fatigue and replacements ready.

14 Obtained information from….. 54-73/ch2.htm

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