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Loading, Secondary Transport, and Sort Yard Functions.

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Presentation on theme: "Loading, Secondary Transport, and Sort Yard Functions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Loading, Secondary Transport, and Sort Yard Functions

2 Lecture Topics Loading –Methods & Equipment Secondary Transport –Methods & Equipment Sort Yards –Objectives, Functions, & Equipment

3 Loading Overview Loading – The act of placing material, i.e. the load, on a vehicle for further transport. Within “hot logging” operations, loading can be the limiting factor for production. Must load for maximum payload within legal limits A safe, balanced load is essential –Position load to prevent slippage

4 Loading Overview (cont’d) Loading methods include: –Hand / manual –Stationary A-frame – winch and cable system –Trailer mounted –Mobile

5 Loading Methods & Equipment Hand / Manual –Uncommon in the U.S. –Low productivity –High labor requirement –Typically found in developing countries

6 Loading Methods & Equipment A-frame winch & cable system

7 Loading Methods & Equipment Trailer-mounted Knuckleboom loader –Based on back-hoe concept –Stationary with a 360° operating circle –Small landing area required (< 1/2 acre) –Flexible maneuverability –Can be used in conjunction with a pull through delimber

8 Mobile Loaders Shovels / Excavators –Common in PNW –Maneuverability –Flexibility –Affordability –Work efficiently on small, roadside landings

9 Key Factors for Hydraulic Loaders

10 Mobile Loaders Front-End Loaders Adapted from forklift methodology Used on the landing or log yard Can be mounted on tracked or wheeled carriers Require large landings (> 1 acre) Loads over-the-side rather than the ends More applicable on centralized landings Can cause significant soil compaction

11 Key Factors for Front-End Loaders

12 Mobile Loaders Three-wheeled loaders Light weight Easy to transport Good for small diameter wood and fuel reduction applications Applicable in plantation forestry Use skid steering Low operating costs

13 Mobile Loaders Self-loading log truck Required to load itself Powered by the truck’s engine Usually smaller than stand-alone loaders Best suited for units with small volumes Typically used with small operations (e.g. Student Logging Crew)

14 Self-Loading Truck Advantages –Flexibility in scheduling log haul –Low labor requirements Driver typically serves as the loader operator –Ability to gather scattered loads Works well with continuous road-side landings –Can load and unload logs using the same piece of equipment Eliminates waiting time –Small landing required

15 Self-Loading Truck Disadvantages –Smaller size reduces reaching and loading capacity –Payload is reduced by the loader’s weight –Load completion is slower than conventional log trucks

16 Mobile Loaders Forwarders Most common in a CTL operation with “cold logging” Works independently to load, transport, & unload Can forward slash material or roundwood effectively

17 Loading Location & Logistics Landing type and location should match extraction method as well as loading equipment In most cases, roadside loading allows system functions to work independently Loading from centralized landings is typically more expensive –Each function is limited by the system rate Loading costs can likely be reduced by providing alternative work for the loader, i.e. increased utilization

18 Secondary Transport Overview Secondary transport – the movement of forest products from landings, decks, yards, or other concentration points to buying or delivery locations The most liability for lawsuits occurs during secondary transport –Many logging contractors subcontract secondary transport to specialized trucking companies Wood fiber is typically transported as 1) Chips4) Log-length 2) Short-wood5) Tree-length 3) Cut-to-length

19 Secondary Transport Methods Water transport –Oldest transport method –Barging or rafting –Payload –~ 300 cords/barge –~ 9 barges/tow –Distance > 400 miles

20 Secondary Transport Methods Rail transport –Used primarily for chips & short-wood –Used less frequently today –Payload ~ 20-40 cords per car ~ 100 cars per train –Distance < 400 miles –Demurrage – cost for rail car setting unloaded $25-40 / day / car

21 Secondary Transport Methods Truck transport –Most prevalent transportation method –Flexible scheduling –Well developed road system –Relatively low investment –Speed of delivery –Distance < 150 miles

22 Truck Transportation Truck selection criteria 1)Type of load – short-wood, tree-length, etc. 2)Weight of truck and load 3)Type of terrain – flat, mountainous, switchbacks, etc. 4)Road type – public, private, etc. 5)Haul distance 6)Periodic volume 7)Safety requirements – braking, etc.

23 Truck Transportation Oregon Log Hauling Regulations –Maximum height – 14 feet –Maximum width – 8.5 feet –Maximum axle load – 20,000 lbs –Maximum tandem axle load – 34,000 lbs –Maximum gross weight – 80,000 lbs –Maximum tire load – 600 lb/in of tire width Note: Additional information can be found @

24 Stinger Steering Hwy Log Truck Log load forms framework of trailer Increased maneuverability with stinger steering Typical on highway load 4-5 MBF

25 Log Train Applicable for CTL wood Setout trailers are commonly used with CTL logging Costly to hot deck trucks in a CTL operation

26 Hay Racks Good for pulpwood or salvage operations Short-wood hauling is most common Also referred to as pallet trailers

27 Off-Highway Log Truck Also called “pull-out truck” Used exclusively on forest roads or roads where there are no weight restrictions. Width of truck is about two times as wide as a standard highway truck.

28 Chip Vans Used with in-woods chippers Has considerable off-tracking which may require curve widening Hard to maneuver on forest roads Have openings either on the top or rear

29 Sort Yard Functions Objectives –Sort and store timber –Process logs for re-sale or use –Pest & damage prevention –Scale logs

30 Sort Yard Functions After unloading –Pre-sorted logs can be moved directly into decks –Unsorted logs must be spread out on skids for sorting Logs being sorted and processed

31 Sort Yard Functions Scaling – The measurement or estimation of the quantity or quality of felled timber –Stick scaling: each log is measured and graded by hand Commonly used for saw-timber where BF volumes are important

32 Sort Yard Functions Weight scaling: –Load weight = loaded truck weight - empty truck weight –Most commonly used for pulpwood where BF volumes aren’t important A sample of loads must be stick scaled to convert weight to volume

33 Sort Yard Functions Processing logs (manual or mechanical) –Cut to preferred lengths –Remove broken ends and knots –Remove rot

34 Sort Yard Functions Sort by: –Species –Use (sawlogs, pulp) –Grade (clear, chip and saw)

35 Sort Yard Functions Storage of logs –Decks on land –Booms in water

36 Sort Yard Functions Pest and damage control –Store in fresh water to avoid insect damage –On land, spray logs with water to limit insect damage and risk of fire –On the Eastside, wet logs have less Blue Stain and end checking

37 Sort Yard Equipment Shovel / Excavator –Used for Unloading Sorting Decking Sorting with an excavator

38 Cat 980 in sort yard Sort Yard Equipment Wheeled Front-End Loader –Used for Unloading Sorting Decking Transporting

39 Sort Yard Equipment Stacker –Used for Unloading Decking Transporting

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