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1 Loaders and Linkers Chapter 3 System Software An introduction to systems programming Leland L. Beck.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Loaders and Linkers Chapter 3 System Software An introduction to systems programming Leland L. Beck."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Loaders and Linkers Chapter 3 System Software An introduction to systems programming Leland L. Beck

2 2 Introduction l To execute an object program, we needs »Relocation, which modifies the object program so that it can be loaded at an address different from the location originally specified »Linking, which combines two or more separate object programs and supplies the information needed to allow references between them »Loading and Allocation, which allocates memory location and brings the object program into memory for execution

3 3 Overview of Chapter 3 l Type of loaders »assemble-and-go loader »absolute loader (bootstrap loader) »relocating loader (relative loader) »direct linking loader l Design options »linkage editors »dynamic linking »bootstrap loaders

4 4 Assemble-and-go Loader l Characteristic »the object code is stored in memory after assembly »single JUMP instruction l Advantage »simple, developing environment l Disadvantage »whenever the assembly program is to be executed, it has to be assembled again »programs have to be coded in the same language

5 5 Design of an Absolute Loader l Absolute Program »Advantage –Simple and efficient »Disadvantage –the need for programmer to specify the actual address –difficult to use subroutine libraries l Program Logic

6 6 Fig. 3.2 Algorithm for an absolute loader Begin read Header record verify program name and length read first Text record while record type is not ‘E’ do begin {if object code is in character form, convert into internal representation} move object code to specified location in memory read next object program record end jump to address specified in End record end

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9 9 Object Code Representation l Figure 3.1 (a) »each byte of assembled code is given using its hexadecimal representation in character form »easy to read by human beings l In general »each byte of object code is stored as a single byte »most machine store object programs in a binary form »we must be sure that our file and device conventions do not cause some of the program bytes to be interpreted as control characters

10 10 A Simple Bootstrap Loader l Bootstrap Loader »When a computer is first tuned on or restarted, a special type of absolute loader, called bootstrap loader is executed »This bootstrap loads the first program to be run by the computer -- usually an operating system l Example (SIC bootstrap loader) »The bootstrap itself begins at address 0 »It loads the OS starting address 0x80 »No header record or control information, the object code is consecutive bytes of memory

11 11 Fig. 3.3 SIC Bootstrap Loader Logic Begin X=0x80 (the address of the next memory location to be loaded Loop A  GETC ( and convert it from the ASCII character code to the value of the hexadecimal digit ) save the value in the high-order 4 bits of S A  GETC combine the value to form one byte A  (A+S) store the value (in A) to the address in register X X  X+1 End 0~9 : 30~39 A~F : 41~46 GETCA  read one character if A=0x04 then jump to 0x80 if A<48 then GETC A  A-48 (0x30) if A<10 then return A  A-7 return

12 12 Relocating Loaders l Motivation »efficient sharing of the machine with larger memory and when several independent programs are to be run together »support the use of subroutine libraries efficiently l Two methods for specifying relocation »modification record (Fig. 3.4, 3.5) »relocation bit (Fig. 3.6, 3.7) –each instruction is associated with one relocation bit –these relocation bits in a Text record is gathered into bit masks

13 13 Modification Record l For complex machines l Also called RLD specification »Relocation and Linkage Directory Modification record col 1: M col 2-7: relocation address col 8-9: length (halfbyte) col 10: flag (+/-) col 11-17: segment name

14 14 Fig. 3.5 H  COPY  T   1D  17202D  69202D   ...  3F2FEC  T  00001D  13  0F2016   0F200D  4B10105D  3E2003  454F46 T   1D  B410  B400  B440   E32019 ...  57C003  B850 T   1D  3B2FEA   4F0000  F1  B410 ...  DF2008  B850 T   07  3B2FEF  4F0000  05 M   05+COPY M   05+COPY M   05+COPY E 

15 15 Relocation Bit l For simple machines l Relocation bit »0: no modification is necessary »1: modification is needed l Twelve-bit mask is used in each Text record »since each text record contains less than 12 words »unused words are set to 0 »any value that is to be modified during relocation must coincide with one of these 3-byte segments –e.g. line 210 Text record col 1: T col 2-7: starting address col 8-9: length (byte) col 10-12: relocation bits col 13-72: object code

16 16 Fig. 3-7 H  COPY  A T   1E  FFC        … T  00001E  15  E00  0C0036    4C0000  454F46   T   1E  FFC    E0105D  30103F  D8105D  ... T   0A  800   4C0000  F1  T   19  FE0   E01079    DC1079  2C0036 ... E 

17 17 Program Linking l Goal »Resolve the problems with EXTREF and EXTDEF from different control sections (sec 2.3.5) l Example »Program in Fig. 3.8 and object code in Fig. 3.9 »Use modification records for both relocation and linking –address constant –external reference

18 PROGASTART0 EXTDEFLISTA, ENDA EXTREFLISTB, ENDB, LISTC, ENDC. 0020REF1LDALISTA 03201D 0023REF2+LDTLISTB REF3LDX#ENDA-LISTA LISTAEQU* 0054ENDAEQU* 0054REF4WORDENDA-LISTA+LISTC REF5WORDENDC-LISTC-10 FFFFF6 005AREF6WORDENDC-LISTC+LISTA F 005DREF7WORDENDA-LISTA-(ENDB-LISTB) REF8WORDLISTB-LISTA FFFFC0 ENDREF1

19 PROGBSTART0 EXTDEFLISTB, ENDB EXTREFLISTA, ENDA, LISTC, ENDC. 0036REF1+LDALISTA AREF2LDTLISTB DREF3+LDX#ENDA-LISTA LISTBEQU* 0070ENDBEQU* 0070REF4WORDENDA-LISTA+LISTC REF5WORDENDC-LISTC-10 FFFFF6 0076REF6WORDENDC-LISTC+LISTA-1 FFFFFF 0079REF7WORDENDA-LISTA-(ENDB-LISTB) FFFFF0 007CREF8WORDLISTB-LISTA END

20 PROGCSTART0 EXTDEFLISTC, ENDC EXTREFLISTA, ENDA, LISTB, ENDB. 0018REF1+LDALISTA CREF2+LDTLISTB REF3+LDX#ENDA-LISTA LISTCEQU* 0042ENDCEQU* 0042REF4WORDENDA-LISTA+LISTC REF5WORDENDC-LISTC REF6WORDENDC-LISTC+LISTA BREF7WORDENDA-LISTA-(ENDB-LISTB) EREF8WORDLISTB-LISTA END

21 21 H PROGA D LISTA ENDA R LISTB ENDB LISTC ENDC. T A 03201D T F FFFF F FFFFC0 M LISTB M LISTC M ENDC M LISTC M00005A06+ENDC M00005A06 -LISTC M00005A06+PROGA M00005D06-ENDB M00005D06+LISTB M LISTB M PROGA E000020

22 22 H PROGB F D LISTB ENDB R LISTA ENDA LISTC ENDC. T B T F FFFFF6 FFFFFF FFFFF M LISTA M00003E 06+ENDA M00003E 06 -LISTA M ENDA M LISTA M LISTC M ENDC M LISTC M ENDC M LISTC M LISTA M ENDA M LISTA M00007C 06+PROGB M00007C 06-LISTA E

23 23 H PROGC D LISTC ENDC R LISTA ENDA LISTB ENDB. T C T F M LISTA M00001D 06+LISTB M ENDA M LISTA M ENDA M LISTA M PROGC M LISTA M00004B 06+ENDA M00004B 006-LISTA M00004B 06-ENDB M00004B 06+LISTB M00004E 06+LISTB M00004E 06-LISTA E

24 24 Program Linking Example l Fig l Load address for control sections »PROGA »PROGB F »PROGC0040E251 l Load address for symbols »LISTA: PROGA+0040=4040 »LISTB: PROGB+0060=40C3 »LISTC: PROGC+0030=4112 l REF4 in PROGA »ENDA-LISTA+LISTC= =4126 »T F000014FFFFF600003F000014FFFFC0 »M LISTC

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27 27 Program Logic and Data Structure l Two Passes Logic »Pass 1: assign addresses to all external symbols »Pass 2: perform the actual loading, relocation, and linking l ESTAB (external symbol table)

28 28 Pass 1 Program Logic l Pass 1: »assign addresses to all external symbols l Variables & Data structures »PROGADDR (program load address) from OS »CSADDR (control section address) »CSLTH (control section length) »ESTAB l Fig. 3.11(a) »Process Define Record

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30 30 Pass 2 Program Logic l Pass 2: »perform the actual loading, relocation, and linking l Modification record »lookup the symbol in ESTAB l End record for a main program »transfer address l Fig. 3.11(b) »Process Text record and Modification record

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32 32 Improve Efficiency l Use local searching instead of multiple searches of ESTAB for the same symbol »assign a reference number to each external symbol »the reference number is used in Modification records l Implementation »01: control section name »other: external reference symbols l Example »Fig. 3.12

33 33 Figure 3.12 PROGA PROGBPROGC

34 34 Fig (a)

35 35 Fig (b)

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