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Vocabulary Idioms & Phrases Reading~ Paragraphs 4-7 Post-reading.

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Presentation on theme: "Vocabulary Idioms & Phrases Reading~ Paragraphs 4-7 Post-reading."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Vocabulary Idioms & Phrases Reading~ Paragraphs 4-7 Post-reading

3 Listen to paragraphs 4-7. Skip

4 Now, answer the following questions.

5 ( ) Upon their return to earth, astronauts may not walk properly because ______. (A) they have overused their legs (B) they have lost muscle mass and bone density (C) they have been exposed to intense radiation from the sun (D)more fluids end up in their faces and necks than in legs B

6 ( ) In space, astronauts’ bone density decreases because ______. (A) they cannot get proper nutrition (B) they tend not to use their legs as much (C)they are not well-trained in advance (D)their bodies lose essential minerals such as calcium D

7 ( ) According to the reading, the NSBRI _______. (A) is an institute for training astronauts (B) will send astronauts to Mars in 2010 (C) is a medical center for treating astronauts who have physical or mental problems (D) is now investigating whether a manned mission to and from Mars is practicable D

8 ( ) What causes psychological stress in astronauts? (A) They live and work in small and tight spaces. (B) They are away from family and friends for a long time. (C) Both of the above. (D) None of the above. C

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10 Throughout the duration of a mission, astronauts’ bodies experience some potentially dangerous disorders. One of the most common is loss of muscle mass and bone density.

11 Another effect of the weightless environment is that astronauts tend not to use their legs as much, so the muscles gradually atrophy. tend (not) to + V... 傾向 ( 不 )… Women tend to live longer than men. There tends to be a lot of traffic during this time. not...as much ( 程度上 ) 沒有 … 那麼多 She has a crush on Jackie Chan. But I don’t like him as much. Next

12 Another effect of the weightless environment is that astronauts tend not to use their legs as much, so the muscles gradually atrophy....that astronauts tend not to use their legs as much.... →...that astronauts tend not to use their legs as much as usual....

13 This, combined with the shift of fluids to the upper body and the resulting loss of essential minerals such as calcium,causes bones to weaken. This, combined with the shift of fluids to the upper body and the resulting loss of essential minerals such as calcium, causes bones to weaken. → Loss of muscle mass, together with body fluids redistribution and the resulting loss of essential minerals such as calcium, makes bones weaken. → Bone loss is the combined effect of muscle loss, body fluids redistribution, and the resulting loss of essential minerals such as calcium.

14 Bone density can decrease at a rate of 1 to 2 percent a month and, as a result, many astronauts are unable to walk properly for a few days upon their return to earth. (up) on + N/V-ing 一 … 就立刻 … (Up) on hearing the bad news, the girl burst out crying. He has been visiting many different places upon his arrival in Taiwan....upon their return to earth. →...as soon as they return to earth.

15 Exposure to radiation is another serious hazard that astronauts face. Exposure to radiation is another serious hazard that astronauts face. → Another serious hazard that astronauts encounter is exposure to radiation. → Being exposed to radiation is another grave/great/serious risk for astronauts.

16 Without the earth’s atmosphere to protect them, astronauts can be exposed to intense radiation from the sun, leaving them at risk of cancer...., leaving them at risk of cancer. →..., which leaves them in danger of cancer. 此為一非限定用法的形容詞子句,用以修 飾先行詞.

17 In addition to physiological difficulties, astronauts who travel for extended periods may also suffer from psychological stress. in addition to + A = besides + A 除 A 之外,還有 … (A 包含在內 ) except + A 也是表「 除 A 之外」,但 A 不包含在內。 In addition to/Besides Japanese, Jenny can speak English and Chinese. I like all kinds of fruits except bananas. extended 長期的 Bob got an extended contract.

18 Astronauts live and work in small, tight spaces, and they must be able to deal both physically and mentally with their confined environment....they must be able to deal both physically and mentally with their confined environment. →...they have to be capable of handling the limited environment both physically and mentally.

19 In addition, long periods away from family and friends can leave space travelers feeling lonely and depressed. in addition = besides = what’s more = moreover = furthermore 此外 In addition, long periods away from family and friends can leave space travelers feeling lonely and depressed. → Besides, being away from family and friends for a long period of time can make astronauts feel lonely and depressed.

20 "One small step for man – one giant leap for mankind" – these are Neil Armstrong's unforgettable words as he stepped off the Apollo 11 capsule and on to the moon on July 20, It was the first manned mission to the moon. Now that man has been to the Moon and unmanned missions have been sent to Mars, many believe that the next major step in space travel will be a manned mission to and from Mars. Next

21 Now that man has been to the Moon and unmanned missions have been sent to Mars, many believe that the next major step in space travel will be a manned mission to and from Mars. Two-thirds of all unmanned missions sent to Mars in the past years have ultimately resulted in some form of failure. However, NASA’s Mars rover “Spirit” successfully landed on Mars on January 4, 2004.

22 Differences between the orbits of Earth and Mars mean that such a mission would take almost three years to complete. Differences between the orbits of Earth and Mars mean that such a mission would take almost three years to complete. → The orbit of Earth is different from that of Mars, which suggests that it would take nearly three years to complete a mission like this.

23 The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is currently investigating whether such an operation is possible in light of the hazards astronauts face. National Space Biomedical Research Institute 美國國家太空生物醫療研究中心 Next

24 The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is currently investigating whether such an operation is possible in light of the hazards astronauts face. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is currently investigating [whether such an operation is possible in light of the hazards astronauts face]. → The NSBRI, considering the dangers that astronauts face, now is investigating the possibility of a manned mission to Mars.

25 During short missions, some of the physical and mental challenges of space travel can be controlled with diet and regular exercise. In the case of long-term space travel.... → When it comes to a long-duration space travel/traveling in space for a long period of time.... In the case of long-term space travel, however, it is still not entirely clear if the human body could adapt and survive.

26 In 2010, the NSBRI is due to present its findings to NASA and present a “go” or “no go” recommendation about a manned mission to Mars. Findings 調查的結果 ( 多作複數形 ) Surveys conducted in other countries reported similar findings. National Aeronautics and Space Administration 美國國家航空暨太空總署 ( 簡稱 NASA) Next

27 In 2010, the NSBRI is due to present its findings to NASA and present a “go” or “no go” recommendation about a manned mission to Mars. In 2010, the NSBRI is due to present its findings to NASA and present a “go” or “no go” recommendation about a manned mission to Mars. → The NSBRI is supposed to offer its findings to NASA by 2010 and suggests whether a manned mission to Mars should be performed or not.

28 As new technologies develop to help scientists further pursue their goals, we may one day see humans walk on distant planets. as 為連接詞,表示「隨著 … 」之意。 As the sun rose, the fog dispersed. Back

29 Post-reading

30 Reading for the Main Idea □ 1. Scientists are trying to find ways to sustain human life in outer space. □ 2. People may travel in space as long as they have enough training in advance. □ 3. For years, scientists have tried to find evidence to prove that aliens may have visited our planet. □ 4. Astronauts may experience various problems both mentally and physically when traveling in space.

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32 Discussion 1: Would you like to be an astronaut? Explain your reasons. What requirements do you think an astronaut should have? Yes.No.

33 (1)Yes, I would like to be an astronaut someday. I have always enjoyed doing adventurous things. I climb mountains and take part in some extreme sports such as bungee jumping. In the future, I would like to travel in space. Besides, I am very interested in science, mathematics, engineering, and astronomy. Being an astronaut would be a perfect job for me. Astronauts, I think, have to be optimistic and brave

34 to face any unexpected challenge. They would have to keep in excellent physical condition in order to rapidly adapt themselves to any new environment in space or on other planets.

35 (2)No, I wouldn’t like to be an astronaut because I am afraid I might get lost in space and would never find my way back to the earth. I once saw a movie about three astronauts. During their mission, an accident caused their spacecraft to lose power. The three astronauts not only could not continue their mission but could not go back to the earth. The three astronauts were hopelessly trapped. No rescue team

36 could get to them in time. The only thing they could do at that moment was say goodbye to their families. That was really a touching scene. Fortunately, one of their colleagues, also an astronaut, found a way to use the remaining power to restart their spacecraft and bring them back to the earth. Although the movie had a happy ending, it reminded me the hazards that astronauts might face. To be an astronaut and carry on a mission is

37 really a challenge. It takes skill, intelligence and, most important of all, courage. As to the physical requirements for an astronaut, I think, good health and excellent physical condition are essential.

38 Discussion 2: If you were an astronaut, what kind of work would you like to do?

39 (1) I would like to take my pet dog with me onto the spacecraft and observe how he adapts himself to the new environment. Maybe dogs will be more suitable for space travel than humans!

40 (2) I would like to find a planet suitable for humans to live and then stay there, doing all kinds of researches. I would like to study things on the planet and use them to establish a colony. The colony would be like a paradise without pollution. One day, people from the earth might come and stay. Back


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