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How Animals Move Chapter 21.

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Presentation on theme: "How Animals Move Chapter 21."— Presentation transcript:

1 How Animals Move Chapter 21

2 Pumping Up Muscles Androstenedione
Intermediate in testosterone and estrogen synthesis pathways Taken as dietary supplement Doesn’t help add muscle Does have negative side effects

3 Pumping Up Muscles Creatine phosphate Short chain of amino acids
Donates phosphate to ATP when muscles need quick energy Does enhance performance in sports that require short bursts of energy Long-term effects unknown

4 p.349

5 3 Types of Skeletons feed me! Hydrostatic skeleton Exoskeleton resting

6 3 Types of Skeletons 3. Endoskeleton (vertebrates) Generalized mammal
pelvic girdle pectoral girdle

7 Skull bones Pectoral girdle and upper limb bones Rib Cage
CRANIAL BONES FACIAL BONES CLAVICLE SCAPULA b Rib Cage STERNUM HUMERUS RIBS RADIUS CARPALS Vertebral Column c ULNA PHALANGES VERTEBRAE METACARPALS INTERVERTEBRAL DISKS Pelvic girdle and lower limb bones e PELVIC GIRDLE FEMUR PATELLA TIBIA ligament bridging a knee joint, side view, midsection FIBULA TARSALS METATARSALS PHALANGES Fig. 21-3, p.351

8 Functions of Bones Interact with muscle to enable movement
Support and anchor muscles Enclose and protect internal organs Store calcium and phosphorus Produce blood cells

9 Long Bone Structure Compact bone Spongy bone
Central cavity contains yellow marrow nutrient canal central cavity (contains yellow marrow) compact bone tissue spongy bone tissue

10 Compact Bone Structure
Compact bone consists of many dense, cylindrical layers surrounding canals cylindrical layers blood vessel outer layer of dense connective tissue spongy bone tissue compact bone tissue

11 Bone Marrow Yellow marrow Red marrow
Fills the cavities of adult long bones Is largely fat Red marrow Occurs in spongy bone of some bones Produces blood cells

12 Bone Mass In adults, bone building and bone breakdown continue constantly Osteoblast secretions form bone Osteoclasts enzymes degrade bone Adding and removing minerals adjusts bone strength and helps maintain blood calcium levels

13 Bone Density Exercise can increase bone density
Osteoporosis: Decrease in bone density May occur when the action of osteoclasts outpaces that of osteoblasts May also occur as a result of inability to absorb calcium

14 Osteoporosis

15 Where Bones Meet Joints: Areas of contact or near contact between bones Ligaments: Straps of connective tissue at joints Arthritis: Joint damage or inflammation Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis

16 Skeletal Muscle Bundles of muscle fibers
Tendons attach muscles to bone Lever system Opposing muscle groups biceps triceps

17 Fig. 21-7, p.354

18 Skeletal Muscle Contraction
A muscle is made up of bundles of muscle fibers Muscle fiber contains cross-banded myofibrils myofibril

19 Sarcomere Myofibril is made up of thick and thin filaments arranged in sarcomeres sarcomere sarcomere sarcomere sarcomere Z band Z band Z band

20 Muscle Microfilaments
Thin filaments Two actin strands twisted together Globular proteins Parallel with myofibril Thick filaments Myosin Motor protein Tail and double head

21 Sliding-Filament Model
Myosin heads attach to actin filaments Myosin heads tilt toward sarcomere center, pulling actin with them

22 Sliding-Filament Model
When actin filaments are pulled inward, toward sarcomere center, sarcomere shortens Filaments themselves do not shorten

23 Contraction Requires Calcium
Skeletal muscles contract in response to signals from motor neurons Signals release calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum Calcium allows actin and myosin to bridge

24 Contraction Requires Energy
Muscle cells require huge amounts of ATP energy to power contraction Cells store only small amounts of ATP Three pathways supply ATP to power muscle contraction

25 ATP for Contraction dephosphorylation creatine phosphate aerobic
ADP + Pi pathway 1 dephosphorylation creatine phosphate relaxation contraction creatine pathway 2 aerobic respiration pathway 3 glycolysis alone glucose from bloodstream and from glycogen break down in cells oxygen

26 Motor Unit One neuron and all muscle fibers it controls
When a motor neuron is stimulated, all fibers in muscle unit contract simultaneously, producing muscle twitch Rapid, repeated stimulus of motor unit produces tetanus

27 Twitch and Tetanus peak relaxation stimulus contraction starts time
number of stimuli per second number of stimuli per second tetanic contraction twitch repeated stimulation

28 Muscle Tension Mechanical force exerted on an object by a contracting muscle For a muscle to shorten, muscle tension must exceed the load that opposes it Load may be the weight of an object or pull of gravity on muscle

29 Two Types of Contraction
Muscle contracts but can’t shorten Muscle shortens as it contracts Isotonic contraction: Load is less than muscle’s peak capacity Isometric contraction: Load is greater than muscle’s peak capacity

30 Infection and Motor Neurons
Bacterial toxins block motor neuron control Clostridium botulinum, botulism Clostridium tetani, tetanus

31 Muscle Fatigue Inability to maintain muscle tension
Glycogen is depleted after a period of tetanic contraction Requires recovery time

32 Muscular Dystrophies Genetic disorders in which muscles weaken and degenerate Duchenne muscular dystrophy Defective protein in muscle plasma membrane prevents normal binding of actin filaments to Z band Myotonic muscular dystrophy

33 Exercise Aerobic Strength training Long duration, low intensity
Increases number of mitochondria, number of blood capillaries to all skeletal muscle Strength training Intense, short duration Makes fast-acting muscles form more myofibrils and enzymes for glycolysis

34 Aging Muscles shrink Number of muscle fibers decreases
Slower healing time Aerobic exercise improves fitness and memory

35 Osteogenesis Imperfecta


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