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Agenda Bell ringer Review the Crusades The Sui. Review How did Korea, Japan, and Vietnam adapt Chinese cultural and political models? What were the principal.

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Presentation on theme: "Agenda Bell ringer Review the Crusades The Sui. Review How did Korea, Japan, and Vietnam adapt Chinese cultural and political models? What were the principal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Agenda Bell ringer Review the Crusades The Sui

2 Review How did Korea, Japan, and Vietnam adapt Chinese cultural and political models? What were the principal sources of wealth in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam? Where did foreign influence on Srivijaya come from and what were those influences?

3 Unit 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions (600 C.E. – 1450 C.E.)

4 ESSENTIAL LEARNING: PEOPLES AND CIVILIZATIONS OF THE AMERICAS( )

5 Objectives Evaluate the cultural significance of Teotihuacan. Describe elements of the Maya culture and the significance of the city-states. Identify accomplishments of the Maya. Identify reasons for the decline of the Maya.

6 Essential Questions What was the cultural significance of Teotihuacan? What are some elements of the Maya culture and what is the significance of the city-states? What are some accomplishments of the Maya? What are some reasons for the decline of the Maya?

7 Target: Classic-Era Culture and Society in Mesoamerica ( ) Differences in language and government Unified by similarities in culture, religious beliefs, and social structures.

8 New forms of political organization, achievements in astronomy, math, and agricultural productivity. – Growing population, trade, complex social hierarchies. – Cities

9 Irrigation, draining of wetlands, and terrace farming had existed for over 1000 years. – Powerful elites organized and commanded laborers and soldiers.

10 Teotihuacan (100 CE – 750 CE) – Largest city in the Americas (450 C.E.) – People worshipped many gods and spirits. – Human sacrifice.

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13 – Rapid urban population growth. Later, farm families forced to the urban center. Elite organized labor to drain swamps, build irrigation canals, terrace hillsides. Expanded use of chinampas (“floating gardens”). – Year-round agriculture.

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16 – Elite controlled state bureaucracy, tax collection, commerce. – High status of priests. – No evidence of individual rulers or ruling dynasty. – Role of military is debated Absence of walls indicates peace. Powerful military protected long-distance trade.

17 – Causes of decline unclear. Population of 40,000 by 500 C.E. Building of defensive walls. Murals show violence. Elite mismanaged resources.

18 Map 12-1, p. 311

19 The Maya – No unified state. – High population of the classic period ( ) required intensive agriculture. Drained swamps near major urban centers. Terraced. Grew useful trees and shrubs. Conservation of deer etc. for food.

20 Powerful city-states. Rulers and elite served priestly and political functions – War captives for sacrifice or labor.

21 – Women Those of ruling lineages played important political and religious roles. Little known of poor women – Religious rituals of the home? – Healers and shamans. – Maintained garden plots, managed families.

22 – Accomplishments Accurate calendar. Concept of zero like the Gupta. Form of hieroglyphic inscription. Scribes used every city as a sacred text.

23 – End of the classic era Abandoned major urban centers ( C.E.). Fall of Teotihuacan hurt long-distance trade. Rising population, climatic change, and environmental degradation hurt agriculture. Warfare.

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25 Essential Questions What was the cultural significance of Teotihuacan? What are some elements of the Maya culture and what is the significance of the city-states? What are some accomplishments of the Maya? What are some reasons for the decline of the Maya?

26 Agenda Bell ringer Review the Crusades The Sui

27 Review What was the cultural significance of Teotihuacan? What are some elements of the Maya culture and what is the significance of the city-states? What are some accomplishments of the Maya? What are some reasons for the decline of the Maya?

28 Unit 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions (600 C.E. – 1450 C.E.)

29 ESSENTIAL LEARNING: PEOPLES AND CIVILIZATIONS OF THE AMERICAS( )

30 Objectives Describe the empire created by the Toltecs. Describe social organization of the Aztecs. Evaluate the physical and governmental organization of the Aztec empire. Identify important elements of the Aztec economy. Describe elements of Aztec religion.

31 Essential Questions What were some elements of the Toltec empire? What was the social organization of the Aztecs? Why were the physical and governmental organization of the Aztec empire significant? What were some important elements of the Aztec economy? What are some elements of Aztec religion?

32 Target: The Postclassic Period in Mesoamerica ( ) Division between classic and postclassic – Expanded population, more intensive agriculture, increased warfare.

33 Toltecs – Originally satellite population of Teotihuacan? – Migrants who borrowed from Teotihuacan’s culture? – Military state – Two chieftains – After 1150 CE – struggle between religious elite groups – Internal power struggles, northern military threat, fell by 1175.

34 Map 12-2, p. 316

35 Aztecs – Mexica created Aztec empire through alliances and conquest. – Organized as an altepetl, ethnic state led by tlatoani, or ruler. Directed religious, social, and political obligations. Made of groups of calpolli (up to 100 families in each). – Controlled land allocation, tax collection, local religious life.

36 – Began to adopt political and social practices of the urbanized agriculturalists of the valley. First served powerful neighbors as serfs and mercenaries. Relocated to islands of Lake Texcoco. Twin capitals Tenochtitlan and Tlatelolco (1325)

37 – Mexica seized control of land and forged military alliances with neighboring altepetl. Mexica-dominated alliance became the Aztec Empire. – Aztecs introduced monarchial system. New conquests to demonstrate divine mandate.

38 – Grid layout facilitated movement of people and goods.

39 – Social structure Women – power and esteem. Warrior elite – land and peasant labor as spoils of war. Royal family, highest aristocrats – estates worked by slaves and landless commoners. Lower classes – little influence. Some commoners achieved social mobility through war. Merchants – controlled long-distance trade, provided political and military intelligence.

40 – Economy Efficiently organized labor of the calpolli. Chinampas produced maize, fruits, and vegetables. Tribute system. Barter system.

41 – Religion Polytheistic. Human sacrifice greatly increased. – Military expansion and conquest

42 Essential Questions What were some elements of the Toltec empire? What was the social organization of the Aztecs? Why were the physical and governmental organization of the Aztec empire significant? What were some important elements of the Aztec economy? What are some elements of Aztec religion?

43 Agenda Bell ringer Review the Crusades The Sui

44 Review What were some elements of the Toltec empire? What was the social organization of the Aztecs? Why were the physical and governmental organization of the Aztec empire significant? What were some important elements of the Aztec economy? What are some elements of Aztec religion?

45 Unit 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions (600 C.E. – 1450 C.E.)

46 ESSENTIAL LEARNING: PEOPLES AND CIVILIZATIONS OF THE AMERICAS( )

47 Objectives Describe how Andean societies adapted their environments. Evaluate the role of the ayllu and mit’a as the base of Andean social and political organization. Identify elements of the Moche, Tiwanaku, and Wari cultures. Describe how the Inca created an empire. Identify how the Inca adapted to their environment. Describe the weakening of the Inca.

48 Essential Questions How did Andean societies adapt to their environments? What were the roles of the ayllu and mit’a? What are some elements of the Moche, Tiwanaku, and Wari cultures? How did the Inca create an empire? How the Inca adapt to their environment? How did the Inca empire weaken?

49 Map 12-4, p. 322

50 Andean Civilization ( ) Geography – High mountains – Arid climate along Pacific coast – Tropical climate east of Andes Mountains

51 Cultural response to environmental change – Accurate calendar needed to time planting and harvests. – Terraced hillsides. – Learned to use cold, dry climate to freeze-dry vegetables and meat.

52 Domestication of the llama and alpaca. The clan – ayllu – Held land communally. – Reciprocal obligations. Aid each other in tasks. – Provided labor and goods for chief.

53 – Mit’a – rotational labor draft that organized members of ayllus. Worked fields and cared for herds. Maintained infrastructure. Produced goods essential to ritual life. – Work was interdependent. Hunting, military service, and government – men. Textile production, agriculture, home – women.

54 – Ayllu Intimately tied to production and exchange. Mountain ranges created small ecological areas with specialized resources Vertical integration (verticality) – system of controlled exchange across ecological boundaries.

55 Moche – Around 200 C.E., dominated north coastal region of Peru. – No formal empire. – Urban centers established hegemony over smaller towns and villages, then extended control. – Cultivated with massive irrigation works, complex network of canals and aqueducts. – Alpacas and llamas

56 – Highly stratified and theocratic society. Priests and military leaders – wealth and political control. Commoners – subsistence farming and payment of labor dues to ayllu and elite. Skilled artisans.

57 – Rapid decline Natural disasters (500s) Rise of new military power in Andean highlands. Long-term climate changes.

58 Tiwanaku – Expansion after 200 C.E. depended on technologies that increased agricultural productivity. Vast drainage projects. System of raised fields and ditches. Fish, llamas for meat. Llamas for transportation. – Large scale of construction, high quality stone masonry. – Highly stratified society. – Military conquests, establishment of colonial populations.

59 Wari – Peru. – Shared elements of culture and technology of Tiwanaku. – Massive wall surrounding city center. – Large temple. – Multifamily housing for elites and artisans. – Commoners in sprawling suburban zone.

60 Inca – Centered in valley of Cuzco, initially organized as a chiefdom. – Traditional Andean social customs and economic practices. Conquered territory, increased scale of forced exchange. Broadened and expanded vertical exchange system. Vast herds of llamas and alpacas.

61 – Collective efforts by mit’a neighbors. Material surplus provided necessities for the old, weak, and ill. Draft laborers from each ayllu for soldiers, construction workers, craftsmen, and runners. – Maintained infrastructure – Roads facilitated troop military movement, administration, and trade.

62 p. 327

63 – Hereditary chiefs carried out local administration and judicial functions. – Conquered peoples had to send heirs to live in Cuzco. Conquest magnified Inca ruler’s authority – Creation of imperial bureaucracy drawn from his kinsmen.

64 – Cultural achievements rested on strong foundation of earlier Andean civilizations. – Increased economic output and increased region’s prosperity. – Reduced equality and diminished local autonomy. – Crisis in 1525 Death of ruler led to civil war

65 How did Andean societies adapt to their environments? What were the roles of the ayllu and mit’a? What are some elements of the Moche, Tiwanaku, and Wari cultures? How did the Inca create an empire? How the Inca adapt to their environment? How did the Inca empire weaken?


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