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Hydroelectric and Nuclear Power Technology of Energy Seminar Series Matthew Glazer 2/10/2015 I am a Ph.D. student in Materials Science and Engineering,

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Presentation on theme: "Hydroelectric and Nuclear Power Technology of Energy Seminar Series Matthew Glazer 2/10/2015 I am a Ph.D. student in Materials Science and Engineering,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Hydroelectric and Nuclear Power Technology of Energy Seminar Series Matthew Glazer 2/10/2015 I am a Ph.D. student in Materials Science and Engineering, My current research focuses on Li-ion Batteries, and I have prior research experience studying Nuclear Materials

2 Hydropower Basics Rain water captures gravitational energy Water pressure builds up as height of reservoir increases – (ρV + m)Δh*g = Energy – Power = kρg*Q*Δh 2

3 Hydroelectric Dam Overview 3

4 Types of Hydropower Conventional Dams Run-of-the-River Artificial Channel Tidal 4

5 Siting Considerations Power and energy determined by topography Low degree of siltation Power Transmission (HVDC?) Itaipu Dam, Brazil 14GW Capacity (est.) (World’s 2 nd largest) 5

6 Case Study: California Drought and Hydroelectric Generation 6

7 7

8 Opportunities for New Generation Existing Dams/Uprating Ultra-low head energy converters Energy Poor Countries Municipal water reservoirs Oceanic and Tidal sources 8

9 Fission Energy 9

10 Energy From Atomic Nuclei: Fission Fissile nuclei spontaneously decay, releasing neutrons Nuclei fragments separate at high energy, generating heat Neutrons at the right speed are absorbed by other fissionable nuclei, forming additional nuclear reactions 10

11 Components of a Nuclear Reactor Fuel Moderator Control Rods Coolant 11

12 The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Extraction and Enrichment Fuel Fabrication Operation Reprocessing Waste Disposal 12

13 Reactor Designs: Traditional Boiling Water Reactor Pressurized Water Reactor Gas Cooled Reactors Breeders 13

14 The PWR 1 : 1. 1. Containment 2. cooling tower 3. reactor core 4. control rods 5. pressurizer 6. steam generator 7. fuel 8. Turbine 9. Generator 10. Transformer 11. Condenser 12. secondary coolant (gas) 13. secondary coolant (liquid) 14. air 15. air (humid) 16. River 17. cooling-water circulation 18. primary circuit 19. secondary circuit 20. water vapor 21. pump 14

15 Reactor Designs: Gen IV and Beyond Molten Salt/ Liquid Metal Fast Neutron Reactors Modular (100 - 500 MWe) 15

16 Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Schematic 16

17 Safety Considerations Transport of Fuel and Reactor Vessel Containment and Radiation during operation Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Nuclear Waste Disposal 17

18 Nuclear Proliferation Critical mass of fissile isotopes needed for bomb production Enrichment and reprocessing concerns Regulation and oversight of fissile and fissionable material 18

19 Nuclear Fusion 19

20 Fusion Fuses nucleons together to create heavier elements, releasing excess energy Requires high initial energy (high temps/pressures ) Powers stars Extremely energy dense, reaction products are inert or fuel Astrophysical Reaction Chain 20

21 Fusion Reactor Concepts Thermonuclear Magnetic Containment (e.g. ITER/ Lockheed-Martin) Laser Confinement (National Ignition Facility) 21

22 Fusion Reactor Concepts II Dense Focused Plasma (Lawerenceville Plasma Physics Inc.) Magnetized Target Fusion (General Fusion TM ) 22

23 Fusion Power Outlook Advantages Inherently Safe Enormous Energy Density Some theoretical designs scalable down to 50 MWe High Conversion Efficiency (can be +80%) Abundant fuels 23

24 Fusion Power Outlook Challenges Must generate 15 - 30X net energy output to be commercially viable Radiation Hard Materials (Neutronic Fusion) High Magnetic Fields Edge of Current Technology Envelope Expect a successful demonstration of net positive energy fusion in 10-15 years! 24 CS


26 Questions? 26

27 Case Study: Nuclear Materials 27

28 Radiation Damage Reactor materials: constantly bombarded with high-energy particles, such as neutrons. Interactions with high energy particles act to weaken and embrittle reactor materials, creating a finite lifetime on materials and presenting the possibility for catastrophic failure Lifetime estimation due to radiation damage not well understood 28 Q

29 Liquid Metal Embrittlement and Corrosion Higher temperature coolants more reactive Synergistic failures when combined with irradiation damage High temperatures induce important structural and chemical changes 29 Q

30 Oceanic and Tidal Sources Tidal Currents Tidal Reservoirs River currents 30

31 Case Study: The Changing Role of Hydroelectric Power Generation

32 Atomic Nucleus Protons (p + ) and Neutrons (n 0 ) Ratio of n/p must be balanced for stable nuclei E= MC 2, Enormous amounts of energy! 32

33 Nuclear Subs? 33

34 Neutron Cross Section of Nuclear Materials 34

35 Nuclear Fuels: Fission Fissile vs. Fissionable Uranium (U) – 235 – 238 Plutonium ( 239 Pu) – MOx (1-30% Pu) Higher Actinides Thorium (Th) – 233 U 35

36 Fusion Fuels Hydrogen Isotopes: – 1 H, 2 H (deuterium), 3 H (tritium) Helium 3 ( 3 He) 6 Li 11 B 36

37 Fusion Fuel Comparisons 1.5776 E8 1.74 E8 6.728 E8 7.656 E8 1.4268 E9 37

38 Current Fusion Companies and Technologies CompanyTechnology Conversion to Electricity (Drives Conversion Efficiency) Lawerenceville Plasma Physics Inc Dense Focused Plasma (Aneutronic) Direct (Electric Field) General Fusion TM Magnetized Target Fusion (Neutronic) Indirect (Molten Lead -> Steam Turbine) Helion EnergyFusion Engine (Aneutronic) Direct (Electric Field) Tri Alpha Energy?? (Aneutronic)Direct (Electric Field) Lockheed MartinHigh Beta Reverse Magnetic Confinement (Neutronic) ?? Demonstration Time Horizon = ~10 years! 38

39 ME: Possible Reactions 39

40 ME: Possible Reactions 1. Displacement cascade → defects, defect clusters, amorphization 2. Multiple cascades 3. Collapse of cascade’s vacancy-rich core into dislocation loops 4. Steady-state concentration of defects higher than equilibrium concentrations 5. Recombination of vacancies and interstitials 6. Enhanced recombination by trapping of defects at solutes 7. Interactions between like-defects (clustering) Migration of vacancies and interstitials to sinks: 8. Dislocations 9. Voids 10. Incoherent precipitates 11. Grain boundaries...and the effects of this migration: 12. Preferential interaction btwn. defect fluxes w/ solute atoms... 13....which causes enrichment/depletion at sinks (e.g. GBs) → non-eq. local supersat.... 14....which causes precipitation of new phases at, e.g. the GB And all the while: 15. new cascades cause atomic mixing which can destabilize/dissolve precipitates 40

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