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France Religious wars and the Age of Magnificence.

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Presentation on theme: "France Religious wars and the Age of Magnificence."— Presentation transcript:


2 France Religious wars and the Age of Magnificence

3 I. The Stage is Set Religious Wars evolved into Secular Wars Interests of State take precedence Commercial Revolution changes economic landscape Science & Enlightenment altered ideology of state-subject relationships Age of Absolutism

4 Henry IV Bourbon dynasty

5 Henry IV of Navarre r. 1589-1610 “ Paris is worth a mass ” – Henry was Huguenot – Converted to Catholic to unite France and end religious wars Passed Edict of Nantes – Allowed limited religious toleration

6 II. Model of Absolutism: France A. Henry IV & Sully (Henry IV assassinated in 1610) – Unified France after religious wars – Edict of Nantes Catholic State Church Huguenots had some privileges Some saw this as a state-within-a-state – Denied use of royal council (tried to restrict nobility) – Paulette to raise taxes Annual tax to those who ‘buy’ office Made office hereditary – Mercantilism

7 Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu Bourbon Dynasty

8 Cardinal Richelieu under Louis XIII Louis allowed Cardinal Richelieu to basically run France Richelieu was Machiavellian – Supported protestants in 30 Years war

9 Richelieu strengthened army Richelieu weakened nobility – Centralized monarchial power Supported art, literature, and the sciences Did a lot to strengthen France

10 B. Louis XIII & Richelieu – Marie de’Medici rule until Louis XIII older – Cardinal Richelieu appointed minister – Richelieu’s policy: Total subordination of all groups & institutions to the crown Leveled castles & executed rebellious nobles Generalities created (Intendant System) – Royal Intendant in charge of each – Upper middle class or minor nobles chosen – May use power to: Enforce royal law or weaken power of regional nobility – Reverted to selling offices (not paulette tax) – Increased tax exemptions (privileged class) – Tax farms created – auctioned positions for tax collection (may keep % of tax collected)

11 – Foreign Policy centered on destroying Hapsburg power – Supported Swedes in 30 Yrs War (protestants) France acquired rights to Alsace (will be an issue later) – Cut back on some privileges in Edict of Nantes – French Academy supported by Richelieu Standardized French language via dictionary Supported arts & learning – Mazzarin ‘chosen’ as Richelieu’s successor C. Louis XIII & Richelieu dies in 1643

12 III. Between Louis XIII & Louis XIV A. Queen Anne of Austria ruled as regent (Louis XIV too young) – Mazzarin was true power B. Fronde Revolts – Fronde means catapult or slingshot – A frondeur was a street urchin that threw mud at rich – Aristocracy mad at Richelieu’s policies Saw their power & influence slipping away – Mazzarin tried to reform economy Richelieu left France broke – 30 yrs war cost Reform attempts made Middle Class angry

13 – Middle Class & Aristocracy raised army Mazzarin/Queen Anne versus Middle Class/Nobility – 12 years later, internal disputes among nobility & middle class weaken Fronde forces Fronde lost C. Major results of Fronde Civil Wars – Badly disrupted French economy – Traumatic effect of the young Louis XIV

14 Louis XIV Bourbon Dynasty

15 Louis XIV the Sun King r. 1643-1715 Longest reign of a monarch in history Moved the Royal Court to Versailles – Elaborate buildings – Art and sculptures abound – Party atmosphere – Became center of European social life

16 All nobles required to live at Versailles a couple months each year – This allowed Louis to keep a tight reign on the power of the nobility Absolute Monarchy – Louis controlled all sovereign power Age of Magnificence – French became language of culture – French Classicism was main art style

17 Wars of Louis diverted attention away from domestic financial strife – War of Devolution & Dutch War – War of Spanish succession France went broke supporting the Versailles court and Louis ’ wars France declined in power

18 IV. The Sun King: Louis XIV A. Called Sun King because the world revolved around him! – Age is also called Grand Century Age of Magnificence Age of Louis XIV – Louis spoke: French, Italian, & Spanish – Louis knew history & geography well – Was a devout Catholic – Distrusted Nobility – Loved the ladies Married Queen Maria Theresa via diplomatic agreement Had a main mistress & many minor ones

19 B. Court of Versailles – Was a hunting lodge – Huge elaborate court built – Was used to tame the nobles All great nobility required to live part of each year at Versailles Louis XIV could keep an eye on them Elaborate rituals were created to keep focus on Louis XIV Kept Nobles busy (less chance to plan trouble) – Monarch all over copied the French court style Architecture copied French language spoken in foreign courts (French will replace Latin as the language of learning)

20 C. King DID NOT share power – Key to advancement was to serve Royalty – “I am the state” – Louis XIV used secret police, informants, & intercepted private letters D. John-Baptiste Colbert – Finance minister – Finances were the weakness of King Court of Versailles was expensive! Current tax system inefficient (tax farmers often earned more than the king himself!) – Used mercantilism A nation’s power believed to be based on wealth – specifically bullion All policies meant to regulate economic activity

21 – Created powerful Merchant marine – Sent peasants to Quebec & territory around the mouth of the Mississippi River to tap resources – Effects of Colbert’s policies Textile industry expanded Commercial class prospered Peasants mercilessly taxed & suffered as a result – After 1685: Poor harvests (drought) Deflation of currency Grain price fluctuations Many people emigrated elsewhere to avoid hardships (also see Edict of Fontainebleau)

22 E. Religious Policy – “One king, One Law, One Faith” – Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (Edict of Fontainebleau) Huguenots fled France Many Huguenots were skilled craftsmen, soldiers, and businesspeople Harmed French economy! F. Art & Literature – Imitated style of classical antiquity (Neoclassicism) – Versailles was center of writers & artists – set the style – Biggest name in art was Nicholas Puossin

23 G. Louis XIV’s wars – Louis saw himself as a great military hero – Sought glory – King himself commanded armies – New military units set up (modern army) Commissariat fed troops instead of pillaging Ambulance Corp created (no women yet!) Uniforms & weapons standardized System of recruitment put into place – Will discuss wars later – Treaty of Utrecht marked end of expansionist policy – Wars caused massive drain on French economy (by 1714 France was on the edge of bankruptcy)

24 KEY CONCEPTS How did Louis XIV break the power of the nobility? How was the Huguenot state-within-a-sate broken? What were the effects of the reign of Louis XIV? – Economically – Politically – Culturally

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