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 Skin care begins with understanding its underlying structure and basic needs  You must recognize adverse conditions  Inflamed skin  Diseases  Infectious.

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Presentation on theme: " Skin care begins with understanding its underlying structure and basic needs  You must recognize adverse conditions  Inflamed skin  Diseases  Infectious."— Presentation transcript:


2  Skin care begins with understanding its underlying structure and basic needs  You must recognize adverse conditions  Inflamed skin  Diseases  Infectious skin disorders

3  Skin care specialists are in high demand  High end salons/spas  Work less arduous and physically demanding

4  Process that takes many years  Do not necessarily age as your parents

5  Genetic aging  How your parents aged  Their skin coloring  Resistance to sun damage  Gravity

6  Facial expressions  Repeated movements – expression lines  Crow’s feet – eyes  Nasolabial folds – corners of the nose  Scowl lines – between eyes

7  Primarily environmental factors  Up to 85% of skin aging  What we choose to put into our bodies has a profound effect on the over all aging process

8  Sun Exposure  Tanning= no-no  Daily doses – damaging causing  # 1 cause of premature aging  Use broad spectrum sunscreen every day – (most makeup has)

9  Smoking  Free Radicals – unstable molecules that cause biochemical aging  Causes premature wrinkling of the skin  Weakening and contractions of the blood vessels and small capillaries  Tissues are deprived of essential oxygen  Skin may have a yellow or gray tone to it and a dullness

10  Alcohol  Causes body to repair itself poorly  Interferes with proper nutrition distribution for skin & body tissues  Over dilates the blood vessels and capillaries  Causes capillaries to weaken and burst  Flushed appearance and blotchy red eyes  Dehydrates the skin by drawing out essential water  Causing the skin to appear dull and dry

11  Combination can be devastating to the skin  Constant dilation and contraction of capillaries and blood vessels as well as oxygen and water deprivation quickly make skin appear lifeless and dull  Difficult for skin to adjust and repair itself

12  Illegal drug use  Similar effects of smoking  Interfere with body’s intake of oxygen – affecting healthy cell growth  Some can aggravate skin conditions – acne  Dryness and allergic reactions on skin surface

13  Cumulative stress –  Causes biochemical changes that lead to tissue damage  Poor nutrition – deprives skin of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals needed  Exposure to pollution – produces free radicals and interferes with oxygen consumption

14  Outside factors that influence aging  Sun  Environment  Health habits  General lifestyle  Heredity has little to do with the aging process when above factors are so great (15%)

15  The sun and its UV rays have the greatest impact  80 – 85 % of our aging process is caused by the rays  Collagen and elastin fibers weaken as we age  Happens faster when skin is frequently exposed

16  “Aging rays”  90 – 95% rays reach the earth  Rays weaken the collagen and elastin fibers  Causes wrinkling and sagging in skin tissues

17  “Burning” rays  Affects the melanocytes  Rays can destroy melanocytes cells so they can no longer protect the skin  Do not penetrate as deep as UVA rays  Can be equally damaging to the skin and eyes  UVB rays do contribute to the body’s absorption of vitamin D

18  UVB rays - cause  Sunburns  Tanning  Majority of skin cancers  Shorter rays that penetrate at the base of epidermis

19  Sunscreen of SPF 15 or higher  Avoid exposure during peak hours (10 am – 3 pm)  Apply sunscreen 30 minutes before exposure to allow for absorption  Reapply sunscreen after water activity and sweating  Sunscreen should be full or broad spectrum to filter both UVA & UVB rays – check expiration dates

20  Avoid exposure for children under 6 months  Wear protective clothing  See Dermatologist regularly if changes in moles  Coloration  Size  shape  Self-care examinations

21  Air pollutants affect the overall appearance and health  Factories  Auto exhaust  Secondhand smoke  Speeds up the aging process

22  Follow daily skin routine  Washing  Exfoliating - Removes dead skin cells  Moisturizers  Protective lotions  Foundation

23  Objective symptoms Symptoms that can be seen  Subjective symptoms Symptoms that are those that can be felt  Prognosis Foretelling of probable course of a disease  Diagnosis Recognition of a disease by its symptoms

24  Dermatitis Venerate – allergies developed to ingredients in:  Cosmetics  Antiseptics  Cold waving lotions aniline derivative tints  WEAR GLOVES !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

25  An inflammation of the skin caused by contact with chemicals or substances

26  Develops an allergy to an ingredients or a chemical by repeated skin contact  Sensitization –  An allergic reaction created by repeated exposure to a chemical or substance  Fingers  Face  scalp

27  When irritating substances temporarily damage the epidermis  Not usually chronic if precautions are taken  Corrosive substances or exfoliants  Inflammation, redness, swelling, itching, burning

28  WEAR GLOVES!!!!! Or use tongs!!!!!!  Hand washing causes dryness and cracking – use moisturizers

29  Keep implements and surfaces clean and disinfected  Wear gloves  Keep hands clean and moisturized

30  You must be prepared to recognize certain skin conditions  Know what you can and cannot work on  If you see a skin condition you do not recognize – refer to a physician  DO NOT serve a client who has an inflamed skin disorder

31  Lesion – is a mark that may indicate an injury or damage that changes the structure of tissues or organs  Primary  Secondary  Tertiary

32  Different color or raised above surface  Bulla – A large blister containing a watery fluid  Cyst – A closed, abnormally developed sac, containing fluid, semifluid or morbid matter

33  Macule – A spot or discoloration on the skin – freckle  Nodule – a solid lump larger than.4 inches, can be easily felt  Papule – A pimple, contains no fluid but may develop pus

34  Pustule – An inflamed pimple containing pus  Tubercle – An abnormal rounded, solid lump

35  Tumor – A swelling; an abnormal cell mass resulting from excessive multiplication of cells, varies in size, shape and color  Vesicle – A small blister or sac containing clear fluid –  Ex: poison ivy, poison oak

36  Wheal – An itchy swollen lesion that lasts only a few hours  Ex: insect bite, urticaria (skin allergy), hives, mosquito bite

37  Those that develop in the later stages of disease:  Crust - Dead cells that form over a wound or blemish while it is healing  Ex: scab on a sore

38  Excoriation – A skin sore or abrasion produced by scratching or scraping  Ex: brush burn  Fissure – A crack in the skin  Ex: chapped lips or hands

39  Keloid – A thick scar  Scale – Thin plate of epidermal flakes, dry or oily  Ex: dandruff  Scar – Cicatrix – Light colored, slightly raised mark formed after an injury or lesion of the skin has healed

40  Ulcer – An open lesion on the skin or mucous membrane of the body, accompanied by pus and loss of skin depth

41  Open Comedo/Comedone – Blackhead – a wormlike mass of hardened sebum in a hair follicle – keratin and sebum  T-zone  Sebum exposed to environment, oxidizes and turn black

42  Closed Comedo Milia – Whiteheads  Should be removed under sterile conditions using proper extraction procedures

43  Milia – Whiteheads – benign, keratin filled  small, whitish, pear-like masses in/under the epidermis  due to retention of sebum  associated with fine-textures, dry skin types  Sesame seed –round  Eyes, cheeks, forehead

44  Acne – A skin disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of the sebaceous glands from retained secretions, bacteria – Propionbacterium acnes  Two Types  Simple Acne  Acne Vulgaris  Sebaceous Cyst – large protruding pocket-like lesion filled with sebum  Scalp, back  Surgically removed

45  Seborrheic dermatitis – skin condition caused by an inflammation of the sebaceous gland  Redness, dry or oily scaling, crusting, itchiness  Eyebrows, beard, scalp, middle forehead, sides of nose  Cortisone creams, antifungal medications

46  Rosacea – (formerly - Acne Rosacea) is a chronic congestion appearing primarily on the cheeks and nose  Characterized by – redness, dilation of the blood vessels and the formation of papules and pustules  Cause unknown  Aggravated by: spicy foods, caffeine, alcohol, exposure to extremes of heat and cold or sunlight, and stress

47  Asteatosis – Is a condition of dry, scaly skin due to a deficiency or absence of sebum, caused by old age and exposure to cold

48  Steatoma – (Wen) Is a sebaceous cyst or fatty tumor, filled with sebum and ranges in size from a pea to an orange  Usually appears on the back, neck or scalp

49  Anhidrosis – Deficiency in perspiration  Result of a fever or certain skin diseases  Requires medical attention  Bromhidrosis – Foul smelling perspiration  Usually more noticeable in armpits and feet  Hyperhidrosis – Excessive sweating  Cause by: heat or general body weakness  Medical attention is required

50  Miliaria Rubra – Prickly heat – heat rash  Characterized by: eruption of small red vesicles and accompanied by burning, itching skin  Caused by: exposure to excessive heat

51  Dermatitis – Inflammatory condition of the skin  Eczema – An inflammatory, painful itching disease of the skin  Forms: dry or moist  Must be referred to a physician  Cause unknown  Not contagious

52  Conjunctivitis  Pinkeye  Bacterial infection of the eyes  Products or implements touching infected eyes MUST be thrown away

53  Herpes Simplex – Fever blister or cold sore; recurring viral infection  Characterized by: eruption of a single vesicle or group of vesicles on a red swollen base  Lips, nostrils, other parts of face  IT IS CONTAGIOUS!  Virus remains in person’s body!

54  Impetigo  Contagious bacterial infection  Weeping lesions  Face (chin area)  Children  VERY CONTAGIOUS!!!!!!!

55  Psoriasis – A skin disease  characterized by: red patches, covered with white-silver scales  usually found on the scalp elbows, knees, chest and lower back  It is not contagious  Caused by cells turning over faster than normal  Irritated – bleeding can occur  Not curable

56  Albinism – Congenital leukoderma/hypopigmentation or absence of melanin pigment of the body  Silky hair is white  Skin is pinkish white and will not tan  Eyes are pink  Skin is sensitive to light and ages early

57  Dyschromias –  Abnormal colorations  Accompany a skin disorder may mean systemic disorder  Hyperpigmentation  Darker than normal pigmentation  Hypopigmentation  Absence of pigment  Results in white or light splotches

58  Chloasma – increased pigmentation on the skin (not elevated)  Also called moth patches or liver spots  Cumulative sun exposure  exfoliation

59  Lentigines – singular: Lentigo – Technical term for freckles developed by exposure to sunlight and air  Leukoderma – light abnormal patches  Caused by: burn or congenital disease that destroys pigment producing cells  Classified as : Vitiligo and albinism

60  Nevus – birthmark  Stain – Abnormal brown or wine- colored skin discoloration with a circular and irregular shape – cause is unknown

61  Tan – Change in pigmentation of skin caused by exposure to the sun or ultraviolet rays  Vitiligo – Milky-white spots –  Causes hypopigmented spots and blotches  must be protected from overexposure to the sun  (Michael Jackson claimed to have this)

62  Keratoma – An acquired superficial growth of the skin – many are benign or harmless  Callus  Corn – inward growth  Mole – A small brownish spot or blemish on the skin  Any change in a mole requires medical attention

63  Skin Tag – Small brown or flesh colored outgrowth of the skin  Verruca – Wart – Caused by a virus  Is infectious  Can spread from one location to another  Hypertrophy – abnormal growth of the skin

64  Basal Cell Carcinoma – Most common and least severe  characterized by: light or pearly nodules  Squamus Cell Carcinoma – More serious,  characterized by: red, scaly, papules or nodules

65  Malignant Melanoma – Most serious  Characterized by: black or brown patches on the skin, that may appear uneven in texture, jagged or raised  Most commonly located on areas of the body not receiving regular sun exposure  Least common, but most serious Important for cosmetologists to be able to recognize the appearance of serious disorders to better serve clients Cosmetologist should not attempt to diagnose a skin disorder, but should sensitively suggest the client seek medical advise from a dermatologist

66  A – Asymmetry  B – Border  C – Color  D – Diameter  E - Evolving 

67  Most people have skin care issues at some point in their lives  Acne is both a disorder an esthetics issue

68  Acne is a disorder affected by 2 major factors  Heredity  hormones  Retention Hyperkeratosis  Heredity tendency for acne-prone skin to retain dead skin cells in the follicle  Forming an obstruction  Exacerbates inflammatory acne lesions  Papules & Pustules

69  Skin oiliness is heredity  Propionibacterium acnes are anaerobic  Bacteria that cannot survive in the presence oxygen  Main food source is fatty acids found in sebum

70  Bacteria flourish in clogged follicle  No oxygen  Plenty of food (sebum)  Bacteria multiply  Causing inflammation and swelling  Eventually rupture

71  Immune system is altered  Blood rushes to ruptured follicle with white blood cells to fight bacteria  Causes redness in pimples

72  Acne pustule is an inflammatory lesion resulting from wall rupture and infusion of blood  Pustule forms from papule when enough white blood cells form pus  Dead white blood cells

73  Use cleaners formulated for oily skin  Follicle exfoliants - leave-on products to remove cell buildup  Allows oxygen in to kill bacteria  Avoid products that contain fatty materials  Noncomedogenic – designed and proven to not clog pores/follicles

74  Do not use harsh products – can cause inflammation and worsen condition  Trained salon and spa professionals can work over mild to moderate cases of acne – specialized education

75  Rhytidectomy – face lift  Blepharoplasty – Eyelid surgery  Chemical Peeling – Specially formulated chemical solution is applied to the areas to be treated  A technique for improving the appearance when wrinkles of the skin are present.  The chemical causes a mild, controlled burn of the skin

76  Rhinoplasty – Plastic surgery of the nose  Mentoplasty – Chin surgery  Dermabrasion – A technique to smooth scared skin by “sanding” irregularities  Performed with a rotary abrasive instrument that thins the skin, making the sharp edges of facial scars less prominent  Micro-dermabrasion – uses a diamond bit to “sand” off skin – “for younger looking skin”

77  Injectable fillers – tiny injections of collagen may used to raise depressions closer to normal skin level  Used for deep scars, acne scaring, deep aging lines around the mouth or forehead  Ex: Botox

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