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Presidents Reagan & Bush (the Elder) Ch 32.  1911-2004 – 40 th President (1981-89)  Born & raised in IL, Eureka College, IL  Radio sports announcer.

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Presentation on theme: "Presidents Reagan & Bush (the Elder) Ch 32.  1911-2004 – 40 th President (1981-89)  Born & raised in IL, Eureka College, IL  Radio sports announcer."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presidents Reagan & Bush (the Elder) Ch 32

2  – 40 th President ( )  Born & raised in IL, Eureka College, IL  Radio sports announcer in Iowa  1937 signed w/ Warner Brothers Studio ◦ Made more than 50 movies, “Knute Rockne,” “King’s Row” – many of them “B-movies”  President of Screen Actors Guild (SAG) ◦ Testified at HUAC  Governor of California  Married twice – Jane Wyman – divorced 2 kids ◦ Married Nancy Davis in 1952 – 2 kids

3  “Hollywood on the Potomac”  Hosted more formal gatherings & parties  Nancy known for her designer gowns & dresses  Nancy also oversaw major redecorating at White House  Assassination Attempt – March 30, 1981 ◦ John Hinckley, Jr. – history of psychiatric problems ◦ Shot in lung, just missed heart ◦ Jim Brady, White House Press Secretary, also shot & permanently disabled  “Brady Bill” – requirement for background checks

4  Believed large gov’t endangered economic growth & individual choices  Goals: reduce taxes & limit gov’t regulations of industry to promote growth ◦ Advocated by Economist Milton Friedman  Strongly anticommunists & strong defenses  Neoconservatives – some who believed the counterculture & new freedoms degenerated the youth & went against religious beliefs  By the 1980s, called the New Right  Bolstered by the Moral Majority ◦ Founded by Jerry Falwell in 1979

5  Followed theories of supply-side economics ◦ Believes if taxes are reduced, people will work more & then spend more = economic growth thus more taxes to collect in long run  Economic Recovery Act of 1981 ◦ Cut taxes by 25% over 3 years  Richest received biggest tax cuts ◦ reduced federal spending by $40 billion to balance budget from cutting taxes – cut mostly social programs ◦ Called for deregulation of airlines, banking & telecommunications,  Also cut agencies that oversaw these businesses

6  Severe recession continued into 1983 ◦ Unemployment over 10%  Eventually economy began its turnaround  More Americans labeled “working poor” than ever before  Deficit got even larger ◦ $79 billion in 1981, $221billion in 1986 ◦ Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act, 1985 – required balanced budget by 1990  Savings & Loan crisis – 1,000 S&L banks failed ◦ Critics blamed deregulation ◦ Gov’t spent $200 billion to bail out depositors

7  Appointed 3 Justices to the Supreme Court ◦ Sandra Day O’Connor (1 st woman), Antonin Scalia, & Anthony Kennedy ◦ Promoted William Rehnquist to Chief Justice  Equal Access Act, 1990 – allowed any group access to use public secondary schools  Increased retirement age for Social Security  Air Traffic Controllers Strike, 1981 ◦ Reagan fired all striking workers citing that federal workers were not allowed to strike  “A Nation at Risk” – critical report from Ed Dept ◦ Voucher plans gained momentum

8  Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ◦ Last stage of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)  AIDS 1 st identified in 1981  Initially seen mostly in homosexual men & IV drug users, so many in nation ignored issue  As AIDS/HIV spread to all groups of people, we paid more attention ◦ By 1994, AIDS had killed more than 250,000 in US ◦ As of 2009, over 600,000 have died  Reagan later criticized for slow response ◦ Bush, 41 began push for research & treatments

9  Aim was to weaken communism w/o war  Built up US Military – largest in peacetime ever ◦ Developed B-1 & B-2 bombers, missile systems ◦ Placed newer nuclear missiles in Europe ◦ Pushed for SDI – Strategic Defense Initiative  Land and space based lasers to destroy incoming missiles  Nicknamed “Star Wars” – never completed  Aided anticommunists to weaken the USSR ◦ Mujahadeen – Afghanistan anti-Soviet guerrillas ◦ Contras – Nicaragua anticommunist counter revolution ◦ El Salvador – tied funding to human rights reforms ◦ Invaded Grenada to stop communists from taking over  “protect the lives of American medical students there”

10  Premier Mikhail Gorbachev called for reforms  Glasnost – “new openness” – in foreign policy  Perestroika – reform of the Soviet system ◦ Moved away from socialist controlled economy  Came because Soviet economy was horrible ◦ Food shortages, factories couldn’t compete w/ world ◦ Most of Soviet budget went to military  War in Afghanistan drained budget further  Realized could not compete with Reagan’s build up

11  Reagan’s 2 nd Term – 4 summits w/ Gorbachev  June 1987 at speech in Berlin he dared… ◦ “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!” ◦ Which began to happen Nov 1989 after fall of East German gov’t ◦ Became symbol of end of communism in Europe  Communists lost power in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, Yugoslavia  Soviet Union broke up after failed coup, Aug ‘91 ◦ 15 new republics ◦ Largest one – Russian Federation, Boris Yeltsin

12  Lebanon – sent in Marines to help bring peace in civil war ◦ Truck bomb killed 241 Marines at base in Beirut  Libya – Muammar al-Qaddafi ◦ Reagan blamed them for Berlin nightclub bombing & ordered airstrikes on Libya ◦ Pan Am Flight 103 (London to NY) exploded over Lockerbie, Scotland – killed 259 on plane & 11 on ground – 189 from US  Confirmed Qaddafi ordered attack in 2003  UN imposed sanctions against Libya

13  US sold weapons to Iran  Iran promised to try to pressure terrorist groups holding Americans in Lebanon ◦ Against policy to not negotiate with terrorists ◦ Didn’t work anyway  Used $ from sale of weapons to fund Contra rebels in Nicaragua ◦ Violated 1983 law banned sending $ to Contras  Reagan took responsibility for acts ◦ Retained very high approval ratings  Oliver North, aide, convicted for scandal

14  1924 – still alive, 41 st President (1989 – 1993)  Born in Mass, lived in Texas – oil industry  Combat pilot in WWII  Yale - Economics  2 terms in House of Reps, UN Ambassador, Director of the CIA, Reagan’s VP  Married to Barbara, have 4 sons & 2 daughters  Has worked on fund raising causes ◦ Katrina & Tsunami relief

15  “war on drugs” – climax w/ invasion of Panama to arrest dictator Manuel Noriega ◦ Convicted in US of drug trafficking – 40 yrs in jail  China- Tiananmen Square crackdown ◦ Hundreds of protestors killed ◦ US condemned the action & suspended arms sales  But kept economic & diplomatic ties  South Africa –1 st steps of the end of apartheid ◦ Bush met with Nelson Mandela after his release from jail  Somalia – sent in Marines to establish a cease- fire to deliver food to starving people

16  Caused by Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, Aug 1990 ◦ Saddam Hussein wanted Kuwait’s oil & ports  Bush lobbied for a UN resolution & coalition  By fall of 1990, 700,000 troops (mostly US) were ready in Saudi Arabia  “Operation Desert Storm” ◦ Led by Colin Powell & Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf ◦ 5 weeks of air raids, then 5 days into invasion Iraq agreed to cease-fire  Iraqis lost 25,000 troops, US lost 148  US helped enforce UN rules until Part II in 2003

17  Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990 – ADA  Appointed Justices David Souter & Clarence Thomas  “no new taxes” – campaign promise, then signed budget w/ new taxes ◦ Killed his chance for re-election ◦ Also hurt by mild recession  Signed START w/ Gorbachev ◦ Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty – 35% reductions  Negotiated the NAFTA treaty – North American Free Trade Agreement ◦ Ratified by the Senate after push from Clinton


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