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Unit 4: Building a New Nation Chapter 8: The Early Republic

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1 Unit 4: Building a New Nation Chapter 8: The Early Republic 1796 - 1804


3 The Split Election of 1796 John Adams (Federalist) became President, with Thomas Jefferson (Dem- Repub) as V.P. Adams was the only Federalist to win the presidency

4 XYZ Affair When Adams was elected, the French broke off relations with the U.S. Angry, Adams sent Federalist Charles Cotesworth Pinckney to Paris French foreign minister Talleyrand declined to receive Pinckney & his peace delegation; French began seizing U.S. ships

5 XYZ Affair Instead, they were approached by three go-betweens, later referred to as X, Y, & Z & offered a bribe U.S. insulted Federalists called for military action Congress created the Dept. of the Navy & a standing army Quasi-War began (sea battles) In 1800, the new French govt. under Napoleon signed a treaty & peace was restored Treaty ended the Franco-American Alliance

6 XYZ Affair

7 Repression & Protest Election in 1798 increased Federalist majorities in both houses in Congress Federalists proposed new laws to destroy all opposition & weaken political activities by immigrants The Alien Acts extended residency requirements for citizenship Gave the president power to imprison or deport foreigners who were deemed dangerous

8 Repression & Protest To try & weaken the Republican press, they passed the Sedition Act Republicans claimed that the Alien & Sedition Acts violated the Bill of Rights Congress ignored them, so they took their case to the state govts.

9 According to the Sedition Act, could the following people be punished?
Someone who published a pamphlet stating that John Adams was a “war-monger.” Someone who stood on a wooden box in the town square and told passersby that the U.S. should not fight with France. A Democratic-Republican Congressman who openly expressed his sympathies for France.

10 Virginia Resolution, 1798 That the General Assembly of Virginia, doth unequivocably express a firm resolution to maintain and defend the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of this State, against every aggression either foreign or domestic, and that they will support the government of the United States in all measures warranted by the former. That this assembly most solemnly declares a warm attachment to the Union of the States, to maintain which it pledges all its powers; and that for this end, it is their duty to watch over and oppose every infraction of those principles which constitute the only basis of that Union, because a faithful observance of them, can alone secure it's existence and the public happiness. That this Assembly doth explicitly and peremptorily declare, that it views the powers of the federal government, as resulting from the compact, to which the states are parties; as limited by the plain sense and intention of the instrument constituting the compact; as no further valid that they are authorized by the grants enumerated in that compact; and that in case of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers, not granted by the said compact, the states who are parties thereto, have the right, and are in duty bound, to interpose for arresting the progress of the evil, and for maintaining within their respective limits, the authorities, rights and liberties appertaining to them…

11 Repression & Protest In the Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions, Madison & Jefferson claimed that states have the right to overrule the federal govt. No other states adopted this, & the issue died

12 Thomas Jefferson – 3rd President
The Revolution of 1800 Jefferson & Burr (both Dem-Repubs) received the same number of votes House of Reps chose the President Hamilton encouraged others to support Jefferson Significance – nonviolent transfer of power from one party to another Led to the 12th Amendment (1804) – requires separate balloting in the E. C. for the Pres. & Vice Pres. Thomas Jefferson – 3rd President

13 Election of 1800

14 The Marshall Court Federalist Congress pushed through last- minute legislation: The Judiciary Act of 1801 Created 16 new federal judgeships, which were filled by loyal Federalists Adams appointed John Marshall, his Sec. of State, as Chief of S.C. In Marbury v. Madison (1803) set the precedent for judicial review – the S.C. has the final authority in determining the meaning of the Constitution

15 Marbury v. Madison

16 The Louisiana Purchase (1803)
In 1800, Napoleon traded French land in southern Europe to Spain in exchange for Spain’s land in N. America U.S. purchased it for $15 million, doubling the size of the U.S.

17 Exploration of the L.P. Before Napoleon’s offer, Jefferson had authorized an expedition to explore western territory to the Pacific The Lewis & Clark group left St. Louis in 1804 & returned 2 ½ years later Primary mission was to note the people who lived there & to chart waterways Aided by Sacajawea Returned with scientific info, knowledge of the people, & maps

18 Lewis and Clark Expedition

19 African Americans in Jefferson’s Republic
Believed blacks were inferior to whites Felt blacks & whites couldn’t live together Free blacks did not achieve equality; began to form their own institutions

20 Jefferson’s Indian Policy
Didn’t think they were inferior to Europeans; wanted to lift them out of their “uncivilized” state Created govt.-owned trading posts for Indians to acquire goods Would increase contact with whites Encouraged Indians to relocate to reservations

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