3The Split Election of 1796John Adams (Federalist) became President, with Thomas Jefferson (Dem- Repub) as V.P.Adams was the only Federalist to win the presidency
4XYZ AffairWhen Adams was elected, the French broke off relations with the U.S.Angry, Adams sent Federalist Charles Cotesworth Pinckney to ParisFrench foreign minister Talleyrand declined to receive Pinckney & his peace delegation; French began seizing U.S. ships
5XYZ AffairInstead, they were approached by three go-betweens, later referred to as X, Y, & Z & offered a bribeU.S. insultedFederalists called for military actionCongress created the Dept. of the Navy & a standing armyQuasi-War began (sea battles)In 1800, the new French govt. under Napoleon signed a treaty & peace was restoredTreaty ended the Franco-American Alliance
7Repression & ProtestElection in 1798 increased Federalist majorities in both houses in CongressFederalists proposed new laws to destroy all opposition & weaken political activities by immigrantsThe Alien Actsextended residency requirements for citizenshipGave the president power to imprison or deport foreigners who were deemed dangerous
8Repression & ProtestTo try & weaken the Republican press, they passed the Sedition ActRepublicans claimed that the Alien & Sedition Acts violated the Bill of RightsCongress ignored them, so they took their case to the state govts.
9According to the Sedition Act, could the following people be punished? Someone who published a pamphlet stating that John Adams was a “war-monger.”Someone who stood on a wooden box in the town square and told passersby that the U.S. should not fight with France.A Democratic-Republican Congressman who openly expressed his sympathies for France.
10Virginia Resolution, 1798That the General Assembly of Virginia, doth unequivocably express a firm resolution to maintain and defend the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of this State, against every aggression either foreign or domestic, and that they will support the government of the United States in all measures warranted by the former. That this assembly most solemnly declares a warm attachment to the Union of the States, to maintain which it pledges all its powers; and that for this end, it is their duty to watch over and oppose every infraction of those principles which constitute the only basis of that Union, because a faithful observance of them, can alone secure it's existence and the public happiness. That this Assembly doth explicitly and peremptorily declare, that it views the powers of the federal government, as resulting from the compact, to which the states are parties; as limited by the plain sense and intention of the instrument constituting the compact; as no further valid that they are authorized by the grants enumerated in that compact; and that in case of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers, not granted by the said compact, the states who are parties thereto, have the right, and are in duty bound, to interpose for arresting the progress of the evil, and for maintaining within their respective limits, the authorities, rights and liberties appertaining to them…
11Repression & ProtestIn the Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions, Madison & Jefferson claimed that states have the right to overrule the federal govt.No other states adopted this, & the issue died
12Thomas Jefferson – 3rd President The Revolution of 1800Jefferson & Burr (both Dem-Repubs) received the same number of votesHouse of Reps chose the PresidentHamilton encouraged others to support JeffersonSignificance – nonviolent transfer of power from one party to anotherLed to the 12th Amendment (1804) – requires separate balloting in the E. C. for the Pres. & Vice Pres.Thomas Jefferson – 3rd President
14The Marshall CourtFederalist Congress pushed through last- minute legislation: The Judiciary Act of 1801Created 16 new federal judgeships, which were filled by loyal FederalistsAdams appointed John Marshall, his Sec. of State, as Chief of S.C.In Marbury v. Madison (1803) set the precedent for judicial review – the S.C. has the final authority in determining the meaning of the Constitution
16The Louisiana Purchase (1803) In 1800, Napoleon traded French land in southern Europe to Spain in exchange for Spain’s land in N. AmericaU.S. purchased it for $15 million, doubling the size of the U.S.
17Exploration of the L.P.Before Napoleon’s offer, Jefferson had authorized an expedition to explore western territory to the PacificThe Lewis & Clark group left St. Louis in 1804 & returned 2 ½ years laterPrimary mission was to note the people who lived there & to chart waterwaysAided by SacajaweaReturned with scientific info, knowledge of the people, & maps
19African Americans in Jefferson’s Republic Believed blacks were inferior to whitesFelt blacks & whites couldn’t live togetherFree blacks did not achieve equality; began to form their own institutions
20Jefferson’s Indian Policy Didn’t think they were inferior to Europeans; wanted to lift them out of their “uncivilized” stateCreated govt.-owned trading posts for Indians to acquire goodsWould increase contact with whitesEncouraged Indians to relocate to reservations