How did the Cold War begin? The USSR and the USA were allies during the Second World War. However, their political systems were very different. American was a capitalist country and the Soviet Union was communist. Both countries became more and more suspicious of each other after 1945. This is how the Cold War developed.capitalist communist The term Cold War is used to describe the relationship between America and the Soviet Union 1945 to 1989. Neither side ever fought the other. They didn’t declare war. But they did everything to oppose each other short of war. The Cold War was to dominate international affairs for decades and many major crises occurred including the Berlin Blockade, the Vietnam War, the Arms Race, the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Berlin Wall. It was a struggle carried on by all means short of war. The Cold War was fought through propaganda, spying, threats, the arms race, the Olympic Games, with each side looking for ways to embarrass the other. Learning Outcomes By the end of this section you will learn how the Cold War developed between 1950 and 1963, you will know what the term ‘peaceful co-existence’ means and consider the consequences for East- West relations of the Missile Crisis in Cuba. How close was the world to war in the 1960s? Read the learning outcomes first. 3 GCSE Modern World History Cold War 1950-1991
7 38º N 1 North Korea Seoul South Korea 38º N North Korea Seoul South Korea 38º N North Korea Seoul South Korea 4 3 2 Pusan North Korea Seoul South Korea Inchon China September 1950, S. Korean army pushed to small area around Pusan. September 1950, led by Gen. MacArthur, U.S. and U.N. forces push N. Korean army to Chinese border. October 1950, China enters the war. Japan controlled Korea until Japan surrendered at the end of World War Two. Then, the Soviets occupied the North, America the South. Each government claimed to be the rightful rulers of Korea. The two halves were divided by the 38th Parallel. June 1950, N. Korea invade. How the Korean War ended The war had reached a stalemate by 1951. President Truman opposed MacArthur’s plan to use nuclear weapons on China. MacArthur was removed from his position in April 1951. In July 1953, an armistice was agreed. The outcome of the war was the same dividing line that was present before the start of the war, approximately around the 38 th parallel. American forces landing at Inchon Harbor on 15 September 1950. The Battle of Inchon began one day after. When the North Koreans retreated, MacArthur's forces carried the war northwards, reaching the Yalu River, the frontier between Korea and China on 24 October, 1950.
How did Stain’s death affect East-West relations? Stalin, the Soviet leader, died in 1953. His successor, Nikita Khrushchev criticsed Stalin, listing the crimes that he had committed. This led to de-Stalinization. Many of the labour camps holding political prisoners were broken up. Images of Stalin disappeared from public view and his statues were pulled down. From 1955, Khrushchev realised that the Cold War was extremely expensive and proposed a policy of ‘peaceful co-existence’ with the West. He wanted the two superpowers to concentrate on trade, industry and not weapons. The Cold War began to enter a new phase. Khrushchev met with western leaders in 1955 and 1960. Both sides were talking to each other after the tensions of the 1940s and 1950s. This led to a reduction in the Cold War tensions that became known as the ‘thaw’.de-Stalinization However, it soon became clear that despite ‘peaceful co-existence’, this would not end the Cold War. The superpowers would clash in the arms race, space race, and over Hungary, Berlin and Cuba. In 1955, Khrushchev formed the Warsaw Pact, a defensive alliance of the USSR and all Eastern bloc countries.superpowers 8 GCSE Modern World History Cold War 1950-1991 Stalin was Soviet leader until 1953. He had made all Communist countries do what he wanted. Despite his widespread control, Stalin was hated all over Eastern Europe. When they heard he was dead, people in East Berlin rioted. Peaceful Co-existence Stalin was too harsh. De-Stalinization Khrushchev's wish to "de- Stalinise" Eastern Europe led to anti-Soviet rebellions in 1956 in Hungary and Khrushchev had to sent in Russian troops to re- establish Soviet control. Khrushchev criticised Stalin. Would the Soviet Union weaken their control of Eastern Europe? Differences with the West can be settled peacefully. Nikita Khrushchev, Soviet ruler after Stalin.