2TermsNutrition: The science of food and how the body uses the foods taken in.Nutrients: The chemical substances in food that help build and maintain the body.Undernourished: Not eating enough food to keep a healthful body weight and activity level.Malnutrition: Lack of proper nutrients in the diet.
3Terms My Plate: Current USDA guideline for portions and nutrients for a balanceddiet.Food Guide Pyramid: A diagrammatic representation of recommended portions of the five basic food groups, plus fats and oilsUSDA: United States Department of Agriculture; responsible for developing and executing U.S. federal government policy on farming, agriculture, and food.
46 Nutrients TermsCarbohydrates: Organic compounds that include sugars & starches; major energy source in dietProteins: Organic compound essential in diet for growth & repair of tissueVitamins: Organic substance that is fat or water soluble essential for normal growth & activity of bodyMinerals: Inorganic element essential to nutrition of humans, animals, plantsFats: Organic compound that serves as reserve of energy in body; necessary for absorption of vitaminsWater: Essential nutrient for body function; produces fluids such as urine, perspiration, tears, saliva
5Functions of Nutrients Carbohydrates — provides energyProteins — build, maintain, and repair cellsVitamins —keep vital processes working
6CarbsFunctions of CarbohydratesSupplies energyHelps in use of fats
10Protein Functions of Protein Builds, repairs, and maintains body tissueSupplies energyTwo Sources:Animal Sources ; meat and eggsPlant Sources; beans
11Vitamins Functions of Vitamins Required for numerous functions within the body but do not become part of the bodyDeficiencies can lead to serious health problems
12Benefits of Vitamins Vitamin A: Healthy eyes and skin Vitamin D: Helps absorb calcium and phosphorusVitamin E: Reduces the risk of heart diseaseVitamin B: Complex; helps with energy, mood, and memoryVitamin C: Helps prevent cardiovascular disease and strengthen immune system
14Minerals Functions of Minerals: Electrolytes -Trace Element: Minerals and trace elements are similar to vitamins and are required in very small or trace amounts to maintain good health. Minerals DO become part of the bodyElectrolytes -Trace Element:Sodium, Chloride, Potassium
15Sources of Minerals Calcium for healthy bones—Dairy Phosphorus for healthy bones & teeth—DairyMagnesium to help muscles & nerves—Nuts, whole grains, leafy greens, chocolate!Iron for healthy blood cells—Red meat, leafy vegetablesPotassium for healthy nervous system—Peas, bananas, broccoliZinc for healthy immune system—Red meat, poultry
16Fats Function of Fats Carry essential fatty acids Provide more than twice the energy of carbohydrates and proteinsSources of FatsGood Fats: peanut butter, nuts, olive oilBad Fats: butter, French fries
17Overindulgence in Bad Fat HIGH CHOLESTEROLCLOGGED ARTERIESHIGH-RISK FOR DISEASEOBESITYHIGH BLOOD PRESSURESHORTENED LIFE-SPAN
18Function of Water Most essential of the nutrients Basis for the fluids in the bodyAll cells and organs need water to function66% of the body is made up of water
19Try to Fill In the Blanks Daily, adult males need to consume around ________calories, adult females around ________. However, an Olympic Athlete needs to consume around ______. Eating less than ________ or more than ______can be dangerous.”Adult males need to consume around 2500 calories, adult females around However, an Olympic Athlete needs to consume around Eating less than 1500 or more than 2650 can be dangerous.”
20TermsCalorie—measurement of the potential heat energy in the food we eatMetabolism—process by which the body breaks down substances and gets energy from foodBMI— measure of body weight relative to heightOverweight---heavier than the standard weight range for your heightObese---having an excess of body fat, serious health risksUnderweight---below the standard weight range for your height, also carries health risks
21Calories Food Energy Heat Measurement of the potential heat energy in the food we eatAmount of energy expended in raising the temperature of one gram of water one degree CelsiusProvide the energy your body needs for activities such as walking , doing chores, and playing sportsYou can fine calorie in protein, carbohydrate, and fatsFood Energy Heat
22Nutrient Calorie Count 1 gram of protein = 4 calories1 gram of carbohydrate = 4 calories1 gram of fat = 9 caloriesAlcohol NOT considered a nutrient since it does NOT contribute to growth, maintenance, or repair of body tissue. IT IS HIGH IN EMPTY CALORIES!1 gram of alcohol = 7 calories
23Ways to Know Calorie Count of Food Food LabelPhone AppsFooducate.Ltd.MyFitnessPal.comFitNowReference Guides
26MetabolismThe process by which the body breaks down substances and gets energy from foodConverts the food you eat into fuelExample: if you consume 500 fewer calories than you use every day, you will lose 1 pound per week.
27Calorie Requirements TEENAGE GIRLS TEENAGE BOYS if sedentary/not active• ifsedentary/not activeif moderately active• ifmoderately activeif active• if activeif very active• if veryactive
28Body Mass Index (BMI) A measure of body weight relative to height. By calculating your BMI you can determine if you’re overweight, obese, or underweightOverweight - heavier than the standard weight range for your heightObese - having an excess of body fat, serious health risksUnderweight - below the standard weight range for your height, also carries health risks
29Appropriate Ways to Determine a Healthy Weight Website to calculate your BMIInsurance tableDoctors recommendationWeight WatchersClothes fitting poorlyFatigue easilyPhotographs of self
30Inappropriate Ways to Determine a Healthy Weight Peer pressureComparing self to models, celebrities,friendsHurtful remarks by family/friendsNegative body image
31Healthy Ways to Manage Weight Choose nutritional foods: fruits, vegetables and whole grains that have fewer caloriesWatch portion sizes: stick to recommended portion sizes for each food groupsAvoid foods that are high in fats and added sugars: fast foods, candy, sodaEnjoy your favorite foods in moderation: enjoy a small scoop of ice cream less often, special occasions
32Healthy Ways to Manage Weight Be active: walking, yard work, dancing, swimming, bicycling, etc.Tone your muscles: muscle tissue takes more calories to maintain than fat, but increasing your muscle mass means that your body will use more caloriesStay hydrated: drink between 8 to 12 cups of day, cup = 8 ounces
33Healthy Ways to Manage Weight Select foods from the five major food groups that are higher in calories: whole milkChoose higher-calorie, nutrient-rich food: nuts, dried fruits, cheese, and avocadosEat nutritious snacks: enjoy more often to increases your daily calorie intakeGet regular physical activity: activity will ensure that most of the weight you gain is muscle rather than fat
34Importance of Physical Activity It helps relieve stressIt promotes a normal appetite responseIt increases self-esteemIt helps you feel more energeticIt help you maintain a weight that is within the healthy weight rangeIt keeps body organs, bones and muscles in good shape
35Strengthening Activities Increase your strength:Circuit trainingPilatesLiftingStretchingPush-upsFree Weights
36Cardio Activities Increasing your Heart Rate: Running Walking quickly BikingAerobicsSwimmingTennis
37QuestionTo lose one pound of fat, a person must decrease their caloric intake by ………?To lose one pound of fat, a person must decrease their caloric intake by calories!
39TermsBody Image: the way you see your body; may be either negative or positiveEating Disorders: extreme, harmful eating behaviors that can cause serious illness or even deathAnorexia: an eating disorder in which an irrational fear of weight gain leads people to starve themselves
40TermsBulimia: an eating disorder that involves cycles of overeating and purging, or attempts to rid the body of foodBinge Eating: an eating disorder in which people overeat compulsivelyFemale Athlete Triad: Consists of three conditions; disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, premature osteoporosis (low bone density)
41Body Image Many teens feel insecure about their changing bodies Changes they my experience are physical and hormonalIt is common to feel unhappy about their body type, wish they were: taller, shorter, thinner, shapelier, or more muscularBody images come from: models, athletes and actors, etc.Fixation on poor body image may lead to a distorted body image.
42Eating Disorders Causes of eating disorders: Linked to depression Low self-esteemTroubled personal relationshipsSocial and cultural forcesGenetics
43AnorexiaThis disorder affects a person’s self-concept and coping abilitiesDevelop obsessive behaviors related to foodsAvoiding food and mealsEating only a few kinds of food in small amountsWeighting or counting the calories in everything they eatExercising excessivelyWeighting themselves repeatedly
44Health Problems Due to Anorexia Malnutrition and starvation may occurBones may become very brittleBody temperature, heart rate, blood pressure may dropOrgan size may be reducedHeart problems and sudden cardiac death may occur
45BulimiaRegularly goes on binges, eating a huge amount of food in a single sittingFeels out of controlOften gulps down food too fast to taste itAfter binging, purges, then forces him/herself to vomit or takes laxatives to flush the food out of systemMay fast or exercise frantically after a binge
46Health Problems Due to Bulimia DehydrationSore, inflamed throat and swollen glandsDamaged teeth from stomach acid from vomitingDamaged stomach, intestines, or kidneysIrregular heart rhythmsHeart failureDeath
47Binge EatingEating large amounts of food in a short period of time without purgingMay feel guilty and disgusted about their behavior but feel powerless to stop the binge eatingMore common in males
48Health Problems Due to Binge Eating Become overweight or obeseDevelop high blood pressureDevelop Type 2 diabetesDevelop cardiovascular disease
49Female Athlete Triad Being competitive athlete Playing sports that require you to check your weight often or maintain a certain weightNot having time to spend with friends because your sport takes up all your free timeExercising more than is necessary for your sportBeing pushed by your coach or your parents to win all costs
50Female Athlete Triad Potentially fatal problem Combination of eating disorder, amenorrhea and osteoporosisSome suggest eating disorders may exist in 62% of females in certain sports and amenorrhea found in 60%Major risk is the fact that bone lost may not be regained
51Signs & Symptoms of Female Athlete Triad Weight lossRestrictive dietingAbsent or irregular periodsBinge eatingInduced vomitingFatigueExcessive exerciseStress fractures
52Pre-Game MealsEat hours before event which allows enough time for digestionEat foods high in carbohydrates with a small amount of lean meat, or perhaps a small amount of dairy.Make sure the meal is low in fat (not over 10%)Drink at least 16 oz. glass of water.
53A Pre-Game Meal Could Be: Lean meat sandwichYogurt and a bagelPasta with a non cream saucePancakes with syrupBagel with jelly and /or a little peanut butter
54Health Problems Due to Female Athlete Triad Stops eating normally and may develop an eating disorderMenstrual periods may stop or become irregularwhich may weaken bonesBones that are thin and weak can increase the risk of fractures and injuriesCan affect growth
55Snack Hour Before Event: Foods high in carbohydrates, no meat, low in fat and easily digestible.YogurtBreadDry Cereal (low fiber)Sports BeveragesCrackers
56Post Game Meals Due the Following: Eaten 30 to 45 minutes after workout/competition:Replace fluids that have been lostFor every pound that is lost, drink 2 cups of fluidsContain complex carbohydrates, protein, and fatsReplenish body’s energy storesKick start the muscle rebuilding processEncourage rapid recovery
57Smart Post Event Meals: Whole, 2%, 1%, skim or chocolate milkFruit smoothieProtein shakeBreakfast cerealPeanut butter sandwichLean meat sandwich on whole-wheat bread with lettuce and tomato
58Tips for Maintaining Energy During All Day Events: Drink plenty of fluidsSmall “mini” meals (under 300 calories) low in sugar and fatsPace your eating evenly throughout the dayTry to avoid eating an hour before eventNO SODA
59GlycogenA polysaccharide representing the main storage form of glucose in the body, primarily found in the liver and muscles. When carbohydrate energy is needed, muscle gylcogen is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cells, and liver glycogen is converted into glucose for use throughout the body, including the central nervous system
60GlycogenIn humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and the muscles, and functions as the secondary long-term energy storage (with the primary energy stores being fats held in adipose tissue).Muscle glycogen is converted into glucose by muscle cells and liver glycogen converts to glucose for use throughout the body including the central nervous system.
61GlycogenGlycogen forms an energy reserve that can be quickly mobilized to meet a sudden need for glucose, but one that is less compact than the energy reserves of triglycerides (lipids).