Presentation on theme: "Nutrition Unit. Terms Nutrition: The science of food and how the body uses the foods taken in. Nutrients: The chemical substances in food that help build."— Presentation transcript:
Terms Nutrition: The science of food and how the body uses the foods taken in. Nutrients: The chemical substances in food that help build and maintain the body. Undernourished: Not eating enough food to keep a healthful body weight and activity level. Malnutrition: Lack of proper nutrients in the diet.
Terms My Plate: Current USDA guideline for portions and nutrients for a balanced diet. Food Guide Pyramid: A diagrammatic representation of recommended portions of the five basic food groups, plus fats and oils USDA: United States Department of Agriculture; responsible for developing and executing U.S. federal government policy on farming, agriculture, and food.
6 Nutrients Terms Carbohydrates: Organic compounds that include sugars & starches; major energy source in diet Proteins: Organic compound essential in diet for growth & repair of tissue Vitamins: Organic substance that is fat or water soluble essential for normal growth & activity of body Minerals: Inorganic element essential to nutrition of humans, animals, plants Fats: Organic compound that serves as reserve of energy in body; necessary for absorption of vitamins Water: Essential nutrient for body function; produces fluids such as urine, perspiration, tears, saliva
Functions of Nutrients Carbohydrates — provides energy Proteins — build, maintain, and repair cells Vitamins —keep vital processes working
Carbs Functions of Carbohydrates Supplies energy Helps in use of fats
Protein Functions of Protein Builds, repairs, and maintains body tissue Supplies energy Two Sources: – Animal Sources ; meat and eggs – Plant Sources; beans
Vitamins Functions of Vitamins Required for numerous functions within the body but do not become part of the body Deficiencies can lead to serious health problems
Benefits of Vitamins Vitamin A: Healthy eyes and skin Vitamin D: Helps absorb calcium and phosphorus Vitamin E: Reduces the risk of heart disease Vitamin B: Complex; helps with energy, mood, and memory Vitamin C: Helps prevent cardiovascular disease and strengthen immune system
Good Sources of Vitamins Vitamin A: dairy, eggs, dark colored vegetables, orange fruits Vitamin D: dairy, eggs, natural sunlight Vitamin E: vegetable oil, nuts, avocados, grains Vitamin B: potatoes, bananas, seeds, fish Vitamin C: citrus fruits, brocco li
Minerals Functions of Minerals: Minerals and trace elements are similar to vitamins and are required in very small or trace amounts to maintain good health. Minerals DO become part of the body Electrolytes -Trace Element: – Sodium, Chloride, Potassium
Sources of Minerals Calcium for healthy bones—Dairy Phosphorus for healthy bones & teeth—Dairy Magnesium to help muscles & nerves—Nuts, whole grains, leafy greens, chocolate! Iron for healthy blood cells—Red meat, leafy vegetables Potassium for healthy nervous system—Peas, bananas, broccoli Zinc for healthy immune system—Red meat, poultry
Fats Function of Fats Carry essential fatty acids Provide more than twice the energy of carbohydrates and proteins Sources of Fats – Good Fats: peanut butter, nuts, olive oil – Bad Fats: butter, French fries
Overindulgence in Bad Fat HIGH CHOLESTEROL CLOGGED ARTERIES HIGH-RISK FOR DISEASE OBESITY HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SHORTENED LIFE-SPAN
Function of Water Most essential of the nutrients Basis for the fluids in the body All cells and organs need water to function 66% of the body is made up of water
Try to Fill In the Blanks Daily, adult males need to consume around ________calories, adult females around ________. However, an Olympic Athlete needs to consume around ______. Eating less than ________ or more than ______can be dangerous.”
Terms Calorie—measurement of the potential heat energy in the food we eat Metabolism—process by which the body breaks down substances and gets energy from food BMI— measure of body weight relative to height Overweight---heavier than the standard weight range for your height Obese---having an excess of body fat, serious health risks Underweight---below the standard weight range for your height, also carries health risks
Calories – Measurement of the potential heat energy in the food we eat – Amount of energy expended in raising the temperature of one gram of water one degree Celsius – Provide the energy your body needs for activities such as walking, doing chores, and playing sports – You can fine calorie in protein, carbohydrate, and fats Food Energy Heat
Nutrient Calorie Count 1 gram of protein = 4 calories 1 gram of carbohydrate = 4 calories 1 gram of fat = 9 calories Alcohol NOT considered a nutrient since it does NOT contribute to growth, maintenance, or repair of body tissue. IT IS HIGH IN EMPTY CALORIES! 1 gram of alcohol = 7 calories
Ways to Know Calorie Count of Food Food Label Phone Apps – Fooducate.Ltd. – MyFitnessPal.com – FitNow Reference Guides
Metabolism The process by which the body breaks down substances and gets energy from food Converts the food you eat into fuel Example: if you consume 500 fewer calories than you use every day, you will lose 1 pound per week.
Calorie Requirements TEENAGE GIRLS 1700-1800 if sedentary/not active 2000-2200 if moderately active 2300-2600 if active 2800-3000 if very active TEENAGE BOYS 2100-2500 if sedentary/not active 2500-2900 if moderately active 2800-3400 if active 3300-4000 if very active
Body Mass Index (BMI) A measure of body weight relative to height. By calculating your BMI you can determine if you’re overweight, obese, or underweight – Overweight - heavier than the standard weight range for your height – Obese - having an excess of body fat, serious health risks – Underweight - below the standard weight range for your height, also carries health risks
Appropriate Ways to Determine a Healthy Weight Website to calculate your BMI – http://www.nhlbisupport.com/bmi/ Insurance table www.bcbst.com www.bcbst.com Doctors recommendation Weight Watchers www.weightwatchers.com Clothes fitting poorly Fatigue easily Photographs of self
Inappropriate Ways to Determine a Healthy Weight Peer pressure Comparing self to models, celebrities, friends Hurtful remarks by family/friends Negative body image
Healthy Ways to Manage Weight Choose nutritional foods: fruits, vegetables and whole grains that have fewer calories Watch portion sizes: stick to recommended portion sizes for each food groups Avoid foods that are high in fats and added sugars: fast foods, candy, soda Enjoy your favorite foods in moderation: enjoy a small scoop of ice cream less often, special occasions
Healthy Ways to Manage Weight Be active: walking, yard work, dancing, swimming, bicycling, etc. Tone your muscles: muscle tissue takes more calories to maintain than fat, but increasing your muscle mass means that your body will use more calories Stay hydrated: drink between 8 to 12 cups of day, cup = 8 ounces
Healthy Ways to Manage Weight Select foods from the five major food groups that are higher in calories: whole milk Choose higher-calorie, nutrient-rich food: nuts, dried fruits, cheese, and avocados Eat nutritious snacks: enjoy more often to increases your daily calorie intake Get regular physical activity: activity will ensure that most of the weight you gain is muscle rather than fat
Importance of Physical Activity It helps relieve stress It promotes a normal appetite response It increases self-esteem It helps you feel more energetic It help you maintain a weight that is within the healthy weight range It keeps body organs, bones and muscles in good shape
Strengthening Activities Increase your strength: – Circuit training – Pilates – Lifting – Stretching – Push-ups – Free Weights
Terms Body Image: the way you see your body; may be either negative or positive Eating Disorders: extreme, harmful eating behaviors that can cause serious illness or even death Anorexia: an eating disorder in which an irrational fear of weight gain leads people to starve themselves
Terms Bulimia: an eating disorder that involves cycles of overeating and purging, or attempts to rid the body of food Binge Eating: an eating disorder in which people overeat compulsively Female Athlete Triad: Consists of three conditions; disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, premature osteoporosis (low bone density)
Body Image Many teens feel insecure about their changing bodies Changes they my experience are physical and hormonal It is common to feel unhappy about their body type, wish they were: taller, shorter, thinner, shapelier, or more muscular Body images come from: models, athletes and actors, etc. Fixation on poor body image may lead to a distorted body image.
Eating Disorders Causes of eating disorders: – Linked to depression – Low self-esteem – Troubled personal relationships – Social and cultural forces – Genetics
Anorexia This disorder affects a person’s self-concept and coping abilities Develop obsessive behaviors related to foods – Avoiding food and meals – Eating only a few kinds of food in small amounts – Weighting or counting the calories in everything they eat – Exercising excessively – Weighting themselves repeatedly
Health Problems Due to Anorexia Malnutrition and starvation may occur Bones may become very brittle Body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure may drop Organ size may be reduced Heart problems and sudden cardiac death may occur
Bulimia Regularly goes on binges, eating a huge amount of food in a single sitting Feels out of control Often gulps down food too fast to taste it After binging, purges, then forces him/herself to vomit or takes laxatives to flush the food out of system May fast or exercise frantically after a binge
Health Problems Due to Bulimia Dehydration Sore, inflamed throat and swollen glands Damaged teeth from stomach acid from vomiting Damaged stomach, intestines, or kidneys Irregular heart rhythms Heart failure Death
Binge Eating Eating large amounts of food in a short period of time without purging May feel guilty and disgusted about their behavior but feel powerless to stop the binge eating More common in males
Health Problems Due to Binge Eating Become overweight or obese Develop high blood pressure Develop Type 2 diabetes Develop cardiovascular disease
Female Athlete Triad Being competitive athlete Playing sports that require you to check your weight often or maintain a certain weight Not having time to spend with friends because your sport takes up all your free time Exercising more than is necessary for your sport Being pushed by your coach or your parents to win all costs
Female Athlete Triad Potentially fatal problem Combination of eating disorder, amenorrhea and osteoporosis Some suggest eating disorders may exist in 62% of females in certain sports and amenorrhea found in 60% Major risk is the fact that bone lost may not be regained
Signs & Symptoms of Female Athlete Triad Weight loss Absent or irregular periods Fatigue Stress fractures Restrictive dieting Binge eating Induced vomiting Excessive exercise
Pre-Game Meals Eat 2 - 3 hours before event which allows enough time for digestion Eat foods high in carbohydrates with a small amount of lean meat, or perhaps a small amount of dairy. Make sure the meal is low in fat (not over 10%) Drink at least 16 oz. glass of water.
A Pre-Game Meal Could Be: Lean meat sandwich Yogurt and a bagel Pasta with a non cream sauce Pancakes with syrup Bagel with jelly and /or a little peanut butter
Health Problems Due to Female Athlete Triad Stops eating normally and may develop an eating disorder Menstrual periods may stop or become irregular which may weaken bones Bones that are thin and weak can increase the risk of fractures and injuries Can affect growth
Snack Hour Before Event: Foods high in carbohydrates, no meat, low in fat and easily digestible. – Yogurt – Bread – Dry Cereal (low fiber) – Sports Beverages – Crackers
Post Game Meals Due the Following: Eaten 30 to 45 minutes after workout/competition: Replace fluids that have been lost – For every pound that is lost, drink 2 cups of fluids Contain complex carbohydrates, protein, and fats Replenish body’s energy stores Kick start the muscle rebuilding process Encourage rapid recovery
Smart Post Event Meals: Whole, 2%, 1%, skim or chocolate milk Fruit smoothie Protein shake Breakfast cereal Peanut butter sandwich Lean meat sandwich on whole-wheat bread with lettuce and tomato
Tips for Maintaining Energy During All Day Events: Drink plenty of fluids Small “mini” meals (under 300 calories) low in sugar and fats Pace your eating evenly throughout the day Try to avoid eating an hour before event NO SODA
Glycogen A polysaccharide representing the main storage form of glucose in the body, primarily found in the liver and muscles. When carbohydrate energy is needed, muscle gylcogen is converted into glucose for use by the muscle cells, and liver glycogen is converted into glucose for use throughout the body, including the central nervous system
Glycogen In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and the muscles, and functions as the secondary long-term energy storage (with the primary energy stores being fats held in adipose tissue). Muscle glycogen is converted into glucose by muscle cells and liver glycogen converts to glucose for use throughout the body including the central nervous system.
Glycogen Glycogen forms an energy reserve that can be quickly mobilized to meet a sudden need for glucose, but one that is less compact than the energy reserves of triglycerides (lipids).