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Advocacy John Daly University of Texas (512) 471-1948 1.

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1 Advocacy John Daly University of Texas (512) 471-1948 1

2 2 A. Know your goal and purpose B. Drop what is unimportant C. Chunk what remains D. Structure your information for memorability - Primacy/recency - When each works Enhancing the Clarity of Your Messages Organize Your Message for Impact Primacy Effect Recency Effect Sign ethics statements at start

3 Images make things “truthier”; use graphs & images with uninvolved and people low in numbers skills, statistics with involved 3 A. Redundancy makes you more interesting B. Redundancy improves memorability - always offer two examples of a concept - beware of seductive details - offer visual and concrete concepts - follow the tell-show-do-respond method Be Redundant Enhancing the Clarity of Your Messages KickStarter projects with videos succeed far more than those without videos 50% vs. 30%

4 4 A schema is a category system people have for organizing information Focus on Your Listener’s Schema Schemas help people remember information Enhancing the Clarity of Your Messages

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7 The Elevator Problem The manager of a large office building has been receiving an increasing number of complaints about the building’s elevator service, particularly during rush hours. Several of the long term tenants in the building have threatened to move out unless the service is improved. In response, the manager recently inquired into the possibility of adding one or two elevators to the building. Although it would be feasible, the only elevator company in the area has a six month backlog of orders. As an assistant to the manager, you were asked to come up with a plan to get two new elevators installed within three months. You must present the plan at the next staff meeting. Please circle one problem statement 1. To get two elevators within three months5. To keep upset tenants from moving 2. To improve elevator service in the building6. To keep the offices fully rented 3. To get more people out of the building faster7. To keep the manager happy with me 4. To keep the tenants in the building happy8. To keep my job List several possible solutions for the problem statement you’ve chosen 1.___________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 2.___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ this exercise was devised by CRA

8 8 What causes crime? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

9 9 Schemas aid people in understanding Enhancing the Clarity of Your Messages - The problem statement you choose shapes the solutions you generate - always make sure there is agreement about what the problem is - when no solution seems to work, change the statement of the problem fight to define the problem--whoever wins the problem, determines the solutions Create decision agendas

10 10 1. You can adapt your message to your listener’s schema 2. You can create a new schema for your listener Enhancing the Clarity of Your Messages Use schemas to enhance your effectiveness

11 11 Faith (Good will ) Honesty (keep promises ) Reliability (consistency) Trust Creating and Maintaining Trust Competency (Knows) Vulnerability (Open) Engaging in behaviors desired by other but not by self; no misplaced benevolence; trusting others; perspective- taking; “take-care” of others; no blame Consistency in messages & standards No Lies or false feedback; “fess” up early Consistent business performance; Dealing effectively with problems Trust is about predictability “Character may almost be called the most effective means of persuasion.” - Aristotle

12 12 Building Competency Perceptions Always cite sources Cite your own competence (e.g., knowledge, background, occupation)…you or introduction.. Record of accomplishment extraordinary accomplishments esoteric accomplishments Appear knowledgeable; be prepared more than others; details matter Even turkeys fly in hurricanes…how do you perform in the tough time Seek out crises Be known for multiple competencies Big picture thinking Keep competent company Effortful-effortless principle

13 13 Engage in perspective taking: Different people may see the same event or issue differently. People don’t say things they know to be wrong

14 14 Developing Perspective Taking Skills Seek out “interests” that underlie “positions” PositionPossible Interests “I want a raise” “You are absolutely wrong” “Why don’t you listen to me?” What?Why?

15 15 Building Close Relationships Through Stories - Our lives revolve around stories - We think narratively - We learn many of our values via stories - We create and share bonds through stories Building Advocacy Skills Effective Advocates Forge Partnerships - Stories are an especially effective way of communicating your ideas - People often “get it” through stories

16 16 Successful Narrative Setting Main Characters Characters’ Goals Obstacles Encountered Resolution The grammar of a story interesting and fun; what do they look like, what do they sound like Event-Action- Suspense- Resolution Lesson Learned Lesson that matches values

17 17 Keys for effective narrative:  Has a point; What do you want your listener to feel, believe, and remember from your story?  Told quickly  People need to sense you care about it  Authentic: Stories need to match who you are  Inclusive—others need to grasp idea and feelings  Suspense—something unexpected happens  Vivid details matter  Validate basic values  Is personal

18 18 Questions to asks to discover a story  What are some principles that matter to you? Why? Where did you learn them and their importance?  What really bothers you—people, events, ideas.  Think, “…for example….” ---ground them in specifics  What are some scenes from your past that were important pivotal events for you? Describe them in detail, including circumstances and characters.  How have your views of those scenes changed? How do the scenes still affect your life?  What has surprised you? Caught your attention? Why?

19 19 If you cannot tell stories, collect interesting “factoids” _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________

20 20 Strengths : What are our strengths that make it possible to pitch this idea? What makes this idea especially good? Weaknesses : What weaknesses exist in our environment that mandate this idea? Opportunities : What opportunities exist, right now, that make this the right time to pitch this idea? Threats : What is wrong with the status quo? What external threats mandate we adopt this idea? What are our vulnerabilities? Why now? Why Now? Strengths Threats (vulnerability) Weaknesses (constraints) Opportunities match convert Minimize/avoid InternalExternal What are the advantages of the idea? What does this idea do well? What are the positive changes facing us? What are the favorable trends? What could be improved? What is done poorly? What factors are threatening us? What could “kill” us?

21 21 Threats Entry of foreign competition Introduction of new substitutes Resource shortage New regulations Product life cycle in decline Changing customer needs/tastes Rival firms adopt new strategies Increased regulation Recession New technology Demographics shifts Foreign trade barriers Poor performance of ally firm Opportunities Rapid market growth Rival firms are complacent Changing customer needs/tastes Opening of foreign markets Mishap of rival firm New product uses Economic boom Deregulation New technology Demographic shifts Other firms seeking alliances High brand switching Sales decline for a substitute New distribution methods

22 22 Create A Need Have A Plan Show Benefits What Happens If We Don’t Adopt

23 23 Building Advocacy Skills Effective Advocates Seek a Competitive Advantage Person “What’s in it for them?” Know the answer to WIIFT

24 24 Match Your Proposal to Decision-Makers’ Needs and Wants  Organizational Reputation  Financial  Efficiency  Individual Status  Relationship Enhancement  Productivity  Safety/Security  Appearing Effective or Creative  Pleasing Customers 

25 25 Preparing to Persuade What Are The Likely Objections? ObjectionResponseObjectionResponse “We lack the resources” “I have a better idea” “It will be too hard to do” “I don’t like you”

26 26 Preparing to Persuade Handling Objections & Questions  Over-prepare  Be the master of the follow-up response  Listen carefully (are you listening or just waiting to talk?)  Use every concern as an opportunity to further your case  Turn negatives into positive  Why no? What would it take for you to say yes?  What don’t you want to be asked? Write out the answers to those  Stay on message  Treat each as a valid concern  Clarify rather than argue

27 27 Because of _______ you can _________ which means ________ (feature) (function) (benefit) Features are different from benefits FeatureFunctionBenefit

28 28 And What Would This Mean? Bring Home the Point!!!!

29 29 People make decisions in biased ways. Building Advocacy Skills Understanding those biases will aid in you in advocating your ideas 

30 30 Building Advocacy Skills The anchoring bias - People reference anchors they have for information Effective Advocates Understand Biases The availability heuristic - People emphasize vivid, most available information Judges were asked to roll dice between reading the documents in a case and making their sentencing judgments. Those who rolled a one gave lower sentences than those who rolled a six. Restaurants will add some overpriced wines lower down on the menu to the ones at the top of the menu seem reasonable

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34 34 Nudging Building Advocacy Skills Effective Advocates Understand Biases - Create settings, events that “make” people engage in different behaviors without feeling forced

35 12% 99% Opt-in Versus Opt-out for Organ Donation Countries with opt-out systems have 25-30% higher donation rates than countries with opt-in systems. Among 17 European countries there is a 16.3% increase in donation when donation is the default.

36 36 Escalation & Entrapment - People can get trapped into positions they don’t want to take Building Advocacy Skills Effective Advocates Understand Biases The norming bias - People don’t want to appear deviant, especially in uncertain situations Overcoming: Separate proposer from decision-maker The likelihood that teenagers will become addicted to cigarettes increases with every smoking scene they see in movies If you tell people what percentage of their neighbors has already paid their taxes, you are more likely to get late filers to pay than if you nag them in another way

37 37 Balance Theory Building Advocacy Skills Effective Advocates Influence Opinions - People prefer consistency among their beliefs - When people believe there are inconsistencies among their beliefs they will try to restore consistency by making a change

38 38 Building Advocacy Skills Effective Advocates Influence Opinions “Lite” Beer Famous Athletes John + + ?

39 39 In 2010, sales of Lego's Taj Mahal kit rose 663% after soccer superstar David Beckham told fans in an internet chat that he had recently built the model, one of Lego's most challenging and expensive ($300), in a hotel room in Italy. Lego makes figurines representing Beckham and his wife, Victoria Celebrities appear in 20%-25% of TV ads in the U.S., 57% in South Korea, and 85% in Japan.

40 40 Building Advocacy Skills Effective Advocates Influence Opinions “God” Term Your IdeaYour Listener + + ?

41 41 Elaboration Likelihood Theory Building Advocacy Skills Effective Advocates Influence Opinions Two Routes to Persuasion A.Central route : Attitude change that results from a person's careful consideration of information that reflects what that person feels are true merits of a particular attitudinal issue. Issue relevant thinking based on cognitive response [Positive thoughts-negative thoughts=degree of attitude change] - supportive cognitive responses yield attitude change - antagonistic cognitive responses preclude attitude change - balanced cognitive responding which leads to no alteration of attitude Building Advocacy Skills

42 42 The Place of Involvement—Central Route When people are involved, what persuades them?  high quality evidence  logical arguments  compelling statistics  comprehensibility of message  distractions How do you increase involvement? create personal relevancy create a sense of responsibility create suspicion about motives and/or credibility of advocate use rhetorical questions to prompt thinking make a counter-attitudinal request

43 43 The Place of Involvement-Peripheral Route When people are not involved, what persuades them?  liking for advocate  credibility  attraction bias (what is good looking must be good)  numerous arguments (sheer quantity)  length means strength  perceived consensus  labels  Images and graphs (vs. statistics with involved)

44 44 Moods Affect Persuasion People in happy mood decrease their attention to argument strength Positive mood Heuristic and global processing of information; reliance of general knowledge; less working memory available Negative mood Effortful processing, careful, analytical, systemic, and detail-oriented Fighting the mood effect: Highlight the transient causes of the mood--Make the mood irrelevant to the task Affect as Information Model: Moods provide people with conscious feedback about on-going non-conscious appraisals; positive moods signal things are safe and benign and thus careful processing is not important; negative moods signal a problem leading to a need to engage in careful and systematic processing

45 Well Fed Judges Are Nicer Source: Danziger et al. Proc of Nat Acad of Sci, Mar-Apr, 2011

46 46 Perceived Confidence Perceived Competence “What convinces is conviction” Lyndon Johnson

47 47 Language intensity: The degree to which your language choices vary from neutrality. Perceptions of confidence are associated with greater language intensity. My idea is: OkayGoodGreat The new project has __________ potential His skills are _______ Lots of Adequate Issue Low Moderate High

48 48 Too much Confidence Judgment Where most of us are Range of opportunity

49 49 Strong qualifiers: Qualifiers can weaken or strengthen your statements A marker of confidence is the use of strong qualifiers “I think this idea might be one we maybe should consider.” The new plan is one I think we might explore. It has some features that could possibly make it somewhat successful. Apparently, there are a few features that could, under some circumstances, be helpful. But, it will depend upon how much it costs. It isn’t really that expensive so we should probably adopt it.

50 50 Lexical diversity: The amount of variation in your word choice Perceptions of confidence are associated with greater lexical diversity Firm -- Organization -- Company -- Business Plan -- Proposal -- Idea -- Concept Problem Talkative Clear

51 51 Vivid details: How vividly and detailed your statements are when describing an event, idea, person, or product Confidence is associated with more vivid details  The car drove past the stop sign.  The red car drove past the stop sign.  The red sports car drove past the stop sign.  The car drove past the stop sign.  The red sports car sped past the stop sign.

52 52 Estimated Speed 20 30 25 40 35 45 smashedcollidedbumpedhitcontacted Loftus & Palmer, 1974 Vivid Language Affects People’s Judgments

53 Irrelevant Details Increase Perceptions of Quality Source: K. Eriksson (2012). “The nonsense math effect” Judgment and Decision- Making, Vol. 7, 746–749

54 54 Make Declarations: The degree to which your language Is direct, clear, unambiguous; no jargon Martin Luther King: “I have a dream ” vs. “I have a strategic plan that will enhance our competitive opportunities” Thomas Jefferson wrote the “Declaration of Independence” not a Colonial “white paper” “We need to modify our logistical supply chain to bolster the velocity of our delivery systems to our markets” __________________________________________________________ “His performance on the team project far exceeded the parameters of expected quality” __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

55 55 Use powerful metaphors, analogies: People often “get it” with a strong metaphor or analogy -"We have gone from boom to bust faster than anytime since the oil shock," said Stephen S. Roach, the chief economist of Morgan Stanley, a New York investment bank. "When you screech to a halt like that, it feels like getting thrown through the windshield.“ -The experience of going through an in-depth audit by the IRS is “an autopsy without the benefit of death.” We’re spending too much money ________________________________________________ There is a great deal of demand for our product ________________________________________________

56 56 Sound organized: When you sound organized, people believe you are more confident and competent - use orienting and summarizing statements - naming points (but beware of announcing the count ahead of time) - highlight organization on visuals We need to talk about the shift changes, the recent hires, the benefits plan, and the consultant’s report._____________________________________________________

57 57 Prime people unconsciously: When you use words that imply what you are seeking people will be more open to the influence - is kind agree she very - dinner Jack ate comply his - drove oblige home he fast - off television turn the conform - watched movie he the is - to Michelle bed influenced went - the off computer convinced was - she car accept cleaned the - Marcus sick very was red - plane the off took concurred - persuaded Jeff yesterday Paula red - she tired was brought very Source: Epley & Gilovich, JESP, 1999

58 58 Priming Matters Percentage of people who interrupted after being primed to be polite or rude Source: Bargh, JPSP, 1996, 71, 235

59 Source: Berger, et al. Contextual priming: Where people vote affects how they vote. PNAS, July 1, 2008 vol. 105 no. 26 8846- 8849 64% 56% Priming Voting: Voting in a School Makes People More Likely to Support Educational Initiative Support for Tax Increases to Fund Schools - Placing decals indicating stores accept MasterCard or Visa makes them consumers more likely to make a purchase

60 60 Precision counts: More precise numbers communicate greater confidence and more believability Source Pandelaere etal. 2011; Zhang & Schwartz, 2012 - When choosing between two dishwashers, a long warranty receives more weight when a fine-grained unit results in a large numerical difference between the two warranties (e.g., 84 months vs. 108 months) than when a coarse unit results in a smaller numerical difference (e.g., 7 years vs. 9 years) - The more fine grained the numbers, the more precise people perceived the speaker to be (1 year vs. 365 days) - People felt that a battery touted to last up to "two hours" would function for just 89 minutes, but they believed, on average, that a battery with life up to "120 minutes" would last 106 minutes - People predict a more timely launch when told a new product would appear in “104 weeks” than if they are told it will appear in “2 years” But only when communicated by humans; not with “machines”

61 61 “Forgetting the business logic and the price, there will be options down the road there, I would answer your question about capable and that we weren’t really quite capable yet because our army was doing all the other stuff we had to do, particularly the systems conversions…The army will be capable to do other stuff sometime next year, which is reasonable. Doesn’t mean we will.” or We’re not ready to do a deal yet Jaime Dimon, CEO, J.P. Morgan NYTimes, 11/9/05 Simple is better: The simpler your language, the more confident you sound "We can do no great things. Only small things with great love." Mother Theresa "Words easy to be understood do often hit the mark; when high and learned ones do only pierce the air." John Bunyan

62 62 Simple is better: The simpler your language, the more confident you sound Perform an analysis ofAnalyze Take action onAct Reach a conclusion aboutConclude Exhibits a tendency toTend Make a recommendation that Make an examination of Give consideration to Due to the fact

63 63 Don’t show off AnnuallyEvery year ComprehendUnderstand SpatialSpace TemporalTime AssistanceHelp PrimaryFirst Disseminate Utilize Attenuate

64 64 Don’t show off EquitiesStocks Fixed IncomeBonds Asset AllocationDiversification Dollar Cost AveragingAutomatic Monthly Investments

65 65 Using Evidence as an Influence Tactic  Evidence must be seen as relevance  Evidence needs to be believable  New evidence is the best evidence  Evidence should be comprehensible  Best used when: - you think you may be seen as low credible - you think you may be seen as having vested interests - you use multiple sources - strategically cite sources of evidence Message Strategies

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