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Chapter 3 Biochemistry The compounds of life. 2.1: Chemicals in Organisms _________________________- carbon containing compounds Next to water, carbon.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Biochemistry The compounds of life. 2.1: Chemicals in Organisms _________________________- carbon containing compounds Next to water, carbon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Biochemistry The compounds of life

2 2.1: Chemicals in Organisms _________________________- carbon containing compounds Next to water, carbon containing compounds are the ______________ substances in living organisms

3 Often have ___________________ _______________________ are found in living or once living things

4 The Importance of Carbon Elements that have full outer energy levels are said to be _______________. In order for the atom to be “happy”, there should be __________________ in the outer most shell

5 Carbon has _____________ in the outer shell – This leaves space for more – it can form __ bonds with ___ other atoms.

6 Carbon is also known to form bonds w/ ____________________ – These bonds can form _____________________, branched ________, or ________.

7 – This variety of carbon bonding is found in ______________________ – Carbons can also form ____________ and _______ bonds in order to get their 4 more electrons

8 Classes of organic molecules Cells join smaller organic molecules (_______________) together to form larger molecules called _________________ or _____________

9 The four major classes of organic macromolecules are: – _________________ – __________________

10 Macromolecule Bonds There are two different methods by which organic molecule bonds are made and broken – ___________________

11 – Dehydration Synthesis Means to __________________ This reaction _______________ between monomers through the loss of a water molecule ___________________ that can be used later

12 – Hydrolysis Means to ________________ (splits) Involves a water molecule splitting bonds between monomers ________________ macromolecules (digestion) The reverse of dehydration synthesis ____________________

13 Carbohydrates Composition – an organic molecule composed of a fixed ratio of___________________ ______________________________ – Example: glucose is ____________

14 – Includes ________________ and ______________________ – These are sugars like glucose, fructose, maltose, galactose ___________________ – starches, glycogen & cellulose – Function to ________________ and _________________ (structure)

15 Monosaccharide : ______________ molecule (glucose)

16 Disaccharides: _____________ molecule

17 Polysaccharides/starch:___________ _________________for storing energy

18 Proteins Composition : made of____________ _______________________________. The monomers of this organic compound are called _______________ The combinations of these 20 amino acids is almost infinite and results in the variety of proteins ~4000 known.

19 Proteins are made from just 20 kinds of amino acids Proteins are the ______________ of all of life’s molecules This diversity is based on arrangements by 20 different amino acids.

20 All amino acids have the ____________ with only one part that varies giving the amino acid it’s unique property.

21 Cells ________________ together by dehydration synthesis. __________________ resulting covalent linkage This makes a ____________ or long chain of amino acids

22 ______________ and _______________ are formed by the same process Hydrolysis ____________________ by adding a water molecule

23 The macromolecule lastly, is a large group of amino acids bonded together to form a ________________


25 Polypeptides ____________ to form a particular shape, which ultimately leads to function of that _____________. To change the _______ (denature), would change the ________ of the protein.

26 Different functions/classes of proteins: _____________________ – silk of spiders, hair of mammals and fibers that make up tendons and ligaments _____________________ – Proteins provide muscular movement _____________ – Ovalbumin- main substance of egg white, serves as a source of amino acids for developing embryos

27 _________________ – Includes antibodies, which fight infections and are carried in the blood _________________ – Includes hemoglobin, the iron- containing protein in blood that conveys oxygen from our lungs to other parts of the body.

28 _____________ – protein that serves as a chemical catalyst, an agent that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being changed into a different molecule in the process.

29 Enzymes All reactions in living organisms occur at different rate Catalysts (enzymes) speed up or slow down reactions The catalyst itself does not change All living things contain catalysts Enzymes take part in about 1000 rxn/sec Enzymes are specific in their function.

30 – Weaken bonds in order to break them/or aid in the formation of them – Provide a way to speed up reactions without increasing temperature of the body

31 Substrate – What the enzyme is acting on – It is something that needs to get put together or broken down by the enzyme Active Site – Binding site where substrate goes, allowing the enzyme to act on it – Similar to a landing pad! Lock and Key Model – Active site and Substrate are “made” for one another!


33 Factors that affect function of an enzyme Temperature – Effects the motion of the molecules – Need optimal temp for best efficiency – High temp denatures enzymes – Optimal = degrees Celsius pH – Optimal = 6-8 (Neutral)

34 Salt concentration – Few enzymes can tolerate very salty conditions Amount of enzyme Amount of substrate

35 Lipids ____________________________, phospholipids and steroids Composition = have large hydrocarbon chains held together by ____________ covalent bonds (no charge) __________________- don’t like water

36 Basic structure of most lipids


38 Functions : – __________________________ (more then carbohydrates) – ______________ against heat loss – serve as a _______________________ around organs

39 The hydrocarbon tails in a fat can be the same or different. hydrocarbon tails may vary in length (___________________) and in the number and locations of double bonds.

40 Saturated vs. Unsaturated If there are no carbon-carbon double bonds, then the molecule is a_________ ___________________ - a hydrogen at every possible position. If there are one or more carbon-carbon double bonds, then the molecule is an _________________ - formed by the removal of hydrogen atoms from the carbon skeleton.

41 _____________________ tend to be liquid at room temperature and are healthier for you. – Corn oil, olive oil and other vegetable oils are unsaturated fats. – Fish oils are unsaturated

42 ___________________ are solid at room temperature and are not healthy fats. – Diets rich in saturated fats may contribute to cardiovascular disease by promoting a condition called _________________. – Lipid-containing deposits called plaques build up on the inside surfaces of blood vessels reducing blood flow. – _____________________ are saturated fats

43 Saturated fats include: – _________________________ (that white stuff that solidifies when you put a piece of meat in the fridge!)

44 _________________ – modified (partially hydrogenated) unsaturated fats. – These have been linked to coronary disease and type II diabetes.

45 Phospholipids Major component of ________________ Structurally similar to fats, but they contain the element ____________and have only two fatty acids instead of three Very important in the functioning of biological membranes

46 Structure of Phospholipid

47 Have _________________ (face external environment) and __________________________ (face internal environment)


49 Waxes ____________________: waterproof – found in plants as a protective covering – found in humans; ____________ which protects us against harmful microorganisms.

50 Waxes More ______________ than other fats Effective natural coatings for fruits such as apples and pears Many animals and insects have was that prevents them ______________

51 Steroids Lipids whose _____________ is bent to form four fused rings.

52 Steroids composed of 4 fused carbon rings – found in ____________ (testosterone, estrogen) and __________________ – regulate certain phases of __________________

53 Nucleic Acids Function : polymers that transfer information Two types: – ____________ (deoxyribonucleic acid) Hereditary info and directs cell activity – ____________ (ribonucleic acid) stores and transfers info from DNA that aids in the making of proteins _____________________ that organisms inherit from their parents consists of DNA

54 Nucleic Acids Composition : made of monomers called _______________ Nucleotides are composed of – _________________


56 – 5-carbon sugar DNA- has the ________________ RNA has a sugar called _____________ – Phosphate group – Nitrogenous bases-Linked at the other end of the sugar _________: Adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine ________: same as DNA except has uracil in place of thymine


58 End of Notes!

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