Mayans, Incas, Aztecs Why did these civilizations develop?
Developed between 1000 BC and 500 AD Very significant! People stay in one place Women become very important Food surplus allows more complex societies to develop
Cahokian Accomplished mound builders Their largest city was larger than London in AD 1250 Monk’s Mound (Illinois)
MACCHU PICCHU IROQUOIS LONGHOUSE SHOSHONE TEEPEE Were all Native cultures the same?
Social Structure Ruling monarchs and noble class 90% peasants Religion Roman Catholicism Spread the faith Intellectual Renaissance “a rebirth”; rediscovery of ancient Greek and Roman texts
Political: Become a world power through gaining wealth and land. (GLORY) Economic : Search for new trade routes with direct access to Asian/African luxury goods would enrich individuals and their nations (GOLD) Religious: spread Christianity and weaken Middle Eastern Muslims. (GOD) The 3 motives reinforce each other Direct Causes = 3 G’s
WHITE EUROPEANS Used the land for economic needs Clearing the land, destroying hunting areas and fencing it off into private property Divided the land and selling it for monetary value. NATIVE AMERICANS Relationship with environment as part of their religion Need to hunt for survival Ownership meant access to the things the land produced, not ownership of the land itself.
Gold Spent three months exploring the Caribbean Islands searching for it Land In the search for gold, renamed islands in the name of Spain Religion Desired to convert natives to Christianity Planted crosses on all places he explored
Fernando Cortez The First Spanish Conquests: The Aztecs Spanish conquerors were called “Conquistadores”. With every Spanish explorer were conquistadors and members of the Catholic Church to convert Native Americans.
1. Would provide the Spanish a good, cheap labor supply “granted” to deserving subjects of the King 2. Conquistador controlled Indian populations Required Indians to pay tribute from their lands Indians often rendered personal services as well. 3. In return the conquistador was obligated to protect his wards instruct them in the Christian faith 4. Encomienda system eventually decimated Indian population. 5. The King stopped the encomienda with the New Laws (1542) supported by de Las Casas, the system gradually died out.-
The Colonial Class System Peninsulares Spanish ancestory Creoles Spanish and Black mixture. Mestizos Spanish and Indian mixture Mulattos White American and Black mixture Native Indians Black Slaves
The Influence of the Colonial Catholic Church Guadalajara Cathedral Guadalajara Cathedral Our Lady of Guadalupe Our Lady of Guadalupe Spanish Mission Spanish Mission
Because natives were susceptible to diseases, Europeans turn to Africa for a labor force Immune to most “European” diseases As more natives died, the demand for slaves increased Using African Americans rather than natives was not as morally controversial
Columbian Exchange : the exchange of new plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe The Columbian Exchange
Kicked off exploration boom! New products, ideas, and diseases introduced to Europe (Columbian Exchange) Mestizo culture Disease/native population/ Rivalry
English Settlement: New England and Jamestown (Quiz 9/27)
New England Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Connecticut
Both felt the Anglican Church in England was too much like the Catholic Church
Pilgrims merge with the Puritans to form Massachusetts Bay Colony
“civil body politic” "just and equal laws 41 Male passengers on the Mayflower formed into a “civil body politic”, signed a compact promising to write and obey "just and equal laws... for the general good of the colony." self-government The compact brought an element of democracy to America and was an example of the practice of self-government in the colonies. self- government All the colonies practiced some form of self- government…………
John Winthrop, founder of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Middle class settlers, educated and organized Successful as fur traders, fishermen and shipbuilders Ruled as “Bible Commonwealth” or theocracy New England Way = Puritan covenant with God To establish holy society----”city upon a hill”
Franchise (right to vote) extended to “freemen” – adult Puritan men of Congregational church town meetings However, in town government, all property- owning males could vote in town meetings Direct democracy----self government Since idea of government was to enforce God’s laws, religious leaders (e.g. John Cotton) were very influential Franchise (right to vote) extended to “freemen” – adult/God’s work, but Clergy not political official
Roger Williams: extreme Separatist, denied right of civil government to govern religious behavior, challenged charter for illegally taking land from Indians Avoided exile to England by fleeing to Rhode Island where in 1636, aided by Indians, he started a colony in the Providence area Started the first Baptist church Allowed complete freedom of religion Roger Williams
Pequots very powerful tribe in CT river valley. 1637 Pequot War Whites, with Narragansett Indian allies, attacked Pequot village on Connecticut Whites set fire to homes & shot fleeing survivors! Pequot tribe virtually annihilated
Metacom (King Phillip) formed Indian alliance – attacked throughout New England, especially frontier English towns were attacked and burned -unknown numbers of Indians died 1676: War ended, Metacom executed, lasting defeat for Indians
Tobacco’s effect on Virginia’s economy: Vital role in putting VA on a firm economic footing. Ruinous to soil when continuously planted. Chained VA’s economy to a single crop. Tobacco promoted the use of the plantation system. Need for cheap, abundant labor. 20, 000 Pounds in 1618 1,500,000 Pounds in 1629
Headright System: Each Virginian got 50 acres for each person whose passage they paid. Indenture Contract: 5-7 years. Promised “freedom dues” [land, £] Forbidden to marry. 1610-1614: only 1 in 10 outlived their indentured contracts!
Beginning in 1662 “Slave Codes” Made blacks [and their children] property, or chattel for life of white masters. In some colonies, it was a crime to teach a slave to read or write. Freemen Were Frustrated
Late 1600s large numbers of young, poor, discontented men in the Chesapeake area. Little access to land or women for marriage. 1670 The Virginia Assembly disenfranchised most landless men!
Led 1,000 Virginians in a rebellion against Governor Berkeley Rebels resented Berkeley’s close relations with Indians. Berkeley monopolized the fur trade with the Indians in the area. Class. Nathaniel Bacon Governor William Berkeley
FRANCE AND NEW NETHERLANDS ON SUMMATIVE EXAM 10/8
New Netherlands founded in the Hudson River area (1623-1624) of modern-day New York Capital New Amsterdam Good relations with Natives Iroquois Culturally diverse Did not intermarry with natives No interest in converting natives Poor leadership allowed New Netherland to be taken by the English--1664
-- Samuel de Champlain Samuel de Champlain - France - “Father of New France” Established Quebec (the 1st permanent French colony in N. America) 1608 Robert La Salle Jean Nicolet Jacques Marquette Louis Jolliet Explorers
Conversion—secondary reason for settlement Jesuits were French missionaries Natives allowed to retain traditional religious beliefs Initial success but after epidemics and draught the Natives refused the “Black Robes”
20,000 people in New England and Canada (100,000 English along the East Coast) Scattered fur trading posts Forts built on edges of claims to keep out British Quebec, Montreal, New Orleans—largest cities