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Chapter 1 About Science About Physics

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1 Chapter 1 About Science About Physics

2 Scientific Method  Scientific Method  1) Recognize a Question  2) Make educated guess (hypotheses)  3) Predict consequences of hypotheses  4) Perform experiments or make calculations to test predictions  5) Formulate the simplest general rule that organizes: hypotheses, predicted effects, experimental findings

3  Fact - close agreement by competent observers who make same observations about a phenomenon.  Law – tested over and over again and has not been contradicted  Says “this is what happens”  A generalization  Based on observation alone  Theory - synthesis of a large body of information that encompasses well- tested and verified hypotheses about certain aspects of the natural world  An attempt to explain something  Says “this happens because…”  Science constantly changes!  Only when solid experimental evidence exists  This does not weaken science…. It makes it the best way to view and evaluate information

4 The most important lesson of the year  BE SCIENTIFIC IN YOUR THINKING  Base opinions/claims on evidence  What is unscientific about these claims?  Intelligent life exists on other planets in the universe  The alignment of the planets in the sky determines the best time for making decisions  The government planned the attacks on 9/11  They all cannot be proven wrong!  A good scientific claim is able to BE PROVEN WRONG  There must be a test for falseness

5  The essence of science is expressed in two questions:  How would we know?  And what evidence would prove this idea wrong?  Assertions without evidence are unscientific and can be dismissed without evidence

6 Hypotheses/Claims must be…  Testable  Repeatable  Not based in opinion  Backed by evidence  Able to be proven wrong  Bad Science Bad Science

7 Scientific Honesty / Integrity  All science is subjected to a rigorous amount of review  Peer review  Repeat trials  Science self-regulates b/c a discredited scientist does not get a second chance  Bad Science  “Vaccines linked to Autism” “Vaccines linked to Autism  Tobacco Companies – “Tobacco is not addictive”  Oil Companies – “Climate Change is due to natural processes”  The Earth is 5000 – 6000 years old.  Vibram – Five Fingers Lawsuit Vibram – Five Fingers

8 Pseudoscience / Conspiracy Theories  Impossible to prove wrong  This is not a good thing  Pick and choose information  Based in belief, not in evidence/science  Just b/c something can’t be proven wrong, doesn’t mean that it is right

9 Famous Conspiracy Theories??  Pearl Harbor  9/11  Kennedy Assassination  Sandy Hook  Moon Landing Hoax Moon Landing Hoax  Assorted Alien Conspiracy Theories

10 Science  ‘The intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment’

11 Physics  The study of matter & energy  Essentially the study of everything


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