2-The Alps are in the North -The Apennine Mts. are on the eastern coast Geography-Located on the Italian peninsula, in the center of the Mediterranean Sea-The Alps are in the North-The Apennine Mts. are on the eastern coast-broad, fertile plains in the north and west22
3Rome Geography Rome is located: -On the banks of the Tiber River -On and around seven hillsWhy would this geographic location be an advantage?33
5-Italy was originally occupied by many different groups of people Early Civilization-Italy was originally occupied by many different groups of people-Two main groups were Greek colonists and the Etruscans-The Etruscans ruled much of central Italy and Rome itself-Ancestors of the Romans, the Latins, settled in the area that is now Rome around 800 B.C.55
6Legend of the Founding of Rome -Legend has it that twin brothers, Romulus and Remus founded the city-According to the tale, the twins’ mother was a Latin woman and their father was the war god Mars-This led Romans to believe that they had a divine origin66
7Romans drove out their Etruscan ruler and established a republic Politics- 509 B.C. Rome is FoundedRomans drove out their Etruscan ruler and established a republicThey did not want one person to have all the power77
8Rome grows strong and begins conquering the rest of Italy PoliticsRome grows strong and begins conquering the rest of Italy-By 270 B.C., Rome controls most of the Italian peninsulaMilitary is made up of citizensRome conquered justly- allowing those conquered to keep their culture, customs, and government- as long as they supplied soldiers, paid taxes, and acknowledge Roman leadership88
9Main Idea 1: The Roman Republic was governed by elected leaders. GovernmentRome was originally a monarchy, ruled by a kingIn 509 BC the Romans overthrew their king and created a republic, a government in which people elect their leaders.Rome’s leaders were advised by the Senate, a council of rich and powerful Romans.All Roman citizens were encouraged to vote and take part in the government.ExpansionUnder the republic, Rome grew. By 100 BC the Romans ruled much of the Mediterranean world.The Romans conquered and took over many lands. For example, they fought and defeated Carthage in North Africa.
10Vocabulary Citizens – people who could take part in the government. Forum – a large public square in the center of the city where citizens met to discuss city affairs and politics.
11The Twelve TablesAfter a 16-year battle with their last king, Tarquin the Proud, the people of Rome vowed never to be ruled by a king again. The people wanted to be ruled by elected leaders. They wanted to vote on any laws suggested. They wanted to vote on who would rule over them each year. This was the beginning of the ROMAN REPUBLIC. Although many things changed, and much improved, women, children, and slaves were still not citizens of Rome. They had no voice in government. Only adult free Roman men were citizens.But, things did improve under the Republic. Leaders of the Republic wrote down many of the old laws, to make sure everyone understood them. History refers to this group of laws as "The Twelve Tables" because the written laws were organized into 12 sections. Each law applied to every Roman citizen, be he rich or poor. That was a huge change for the better!
12Here are a few of the laws in the Twelve Tables (These have been reworded) If you are called to go to court, you must go. If you don’t show up, you can be taken to court by force. If you need a witness to testify and he will not show up, you can go once every three days and shout in front of his house.If it's your tree, it’s your fruit, even if it falls on another man’s land.A person who had been found guilty of giving false witness shall be hurled down from the Tarpeian Rock.No person shall hold meetings by night in the city.A dead man shall not be buried or burned within the city.Marriages should not take place between plebeians and patricians. (As time went on, this law was changed. When the tables were first written, this was the law.)
14The Roman government was a republic. In a republic, citizens can choose their leaders.The republic was established in 509 B.C. and lasted nearly 500 years.
15One difference between the Roman republic and the Greek democracy was that in Greece all men could vote, but in Rome, only men with money and property could vote.Another difference between the Roman republic and the Greek democracy was that in Greece all men voted on every law and in Rome the wealthy elected representatives to make laws for everyone.This type of democracy is called a representative democracy. (This form of government originated in Rome)
18Would I have been able to vote in Rome? In ancient Rome, you were not allowed to vote on laws or elect leaders of the government until you were an adult.Even then, only men who owned land were allowed to have a say in the laws.
19Structure of the Republic Patricians= landholding upper classPlebeians= farmers, merchants, artisans, tradersSenate= governing bodyConsuls= two patriciansDictator= assigned to be in charge in the event of a war for six monthsPatriciansPlebeians1919
20Patricians vs. Plebeians Plebeians have no say in the governmentEventually get to elect their own officials called tribunes in 494 B.C.For 84 years, ( B.C.) plebeians fought to have a role in each part of the government2020
21The Roman ForumThe forum was the center of political, commercial and judicial life in ancient Rome.
23The Roman LegionLegion- a division of the Roman army usually, comprising of 3000 to 6000 men.The army was organized into legions. Each legion has 5000 men. Each legion has its own leader, its own banner, and its own number. Each also had its own nickname. They moved camp every night. Each legion was broken into several fighting groups.A legionary's uniform included a rectangular shield, a short sword, a dagger, a metal jacket, a belt, a helmet, a kilt, a shirt, and hobnailed sandals. The legion wore special hob-nailed sandals.The legion was very organized, and very successful.Each legionary served for 25 years. If they lived through their service, they could retire. They were given land and a pension so that they live comfortably. This system placed loyal military men all over the provinces.
24-Carthage had an empire throughout the Mediterranean The Punic Wars-Carthage had an empire throughout the Mediterranean-Rome fought Carthage in three wars from 264 B.C. to 146 B.C. (118 years!)-By the Third Punic War, Rome had completely destroyed Carthage and gained all of Carthage’s territory2424
26Julius CaesarJulius Caesar was a great general and an important leader in ancient Rome.During his lifetime, he had held just about every important title in the Roman Republic including consul, tribune of the people, high commander of the army, and high priest. He suggested new laws, most of which were approved by the Senate. He reorganized the army. He improved the way the provinces were governed. The Romans even named a month after him, the month of July for Julius Caesar.
27When Julius Caesar said he had something to say, the people flocked to the Forum to hear his ideas. His ideas had been good ones. The people trusted him. Julius Caesar told the people that he could solve Rome's problems. Certainly, the Republic had problems. Crime was everywhere. Taxes were outrageous. People were hungry. Many were out of work. It was easier to use slaves to do work than hire Roman people. The people were angry that their government had not been able to solve the many problems facing the Republic.As Julius Caesar became more powerful, and more popular with the people, leaders in the Senate began to worry. They were afraid that Julius Caesar wanted to take over the government and rule Rome as a king. The leaders of ancient Rome had vowed that the Roman people would never be ruled by a king again. That promise went back over 500 years in time, to when the Roman Republic first began.One of the laws of the original Twelve Tables was that no general could enter the city with his army. Julius Caesar ignored this law. In 49 BCE, he entered Rome with the Roman Legion, and took over the government. The poor people of Rome, who made up the bulk of the population, were glad. The people called him "father of the homeland“. The Senate was furious.
28Why was Caesar murdered? Julius CaesarWhy was Caesar murdered?
29One of Caesar’s biggest rivals was another general called Pompey Caesar and PompeyOne of Caesar’s biggest rivals was another general called PompeyThe Senate disliked Caesar and supported Pompey – they ordered Caesar to get rid of his armyCaesar ignored them and defeated Pompey in battleCaesar then took over Rome as ‘Dictator for Life’
30Caesar’s murder – the build up A few weeks before his murder Caesar is told by a soothsayer ‘Beware the Ides of march!’The night before his murder his wife Calpurnia has a nightmare and begs him not to go to the Senate
31Calpurnia, Caesar’s wife, begged him not to go to the Senate Calpurnia, Caesar’s wife, begged him not to go to the Senate. She had had a nightmare that he would be murdered.
32A violent storm happened. This was to bring bad luck to Caesar.
33Caesar ignored a soothsayer outside the Senate Caesar ignored a soothsayer outside the Senate. He told him to “beware the ides of March”.
34Inside the Senate, a group of senators stabbed him to death, one by one. Casca stabbed him first. There were 23 blows.
35The Murder 15th March 44BC Caesar gets ready to go to the senate More than 60 conspirators wait for Caesar in the SenateThe conspirators, all senators, are led by Brutus and CassiusWith daggers concealed under their togas they murder Caesar, stabbing him at least 23 timesCaesar says to his friend Brutus ‘You, too, my child.’
36-Slave uprisings throughout the republic Republic to Empire-Civil wars break out to decide who should hold power. The senate wanted to keep the status quo; political leaders wanted to weaken the senate and enact reforms-Slave uprisings throughout the republic-Armies became loyal to their commanders because they gave them benefits such as captured land3636
37Main Idea 2: The Roman Empire was a time of great achievements. The change from republic to empire began after the murder of Julius Caesar in 44 BC.Empire: a government that includes many different peoples and lands under a single rule.Caesar’s adopted son Octavian took over the Roman world. As ruler, he was renamed Augustus, which means “honored one.” He was Rome’s first emperor.Augustus was respected for his many accomplishments:Added territory to the empireBuilt monuments and public buildingsImproved roadsAugustus’s rule was the beginning of the Pax Romana or Roman Peace, a period of peace and achievement that lasted for about 200 years.
39The Life of a Roman Child Only children from wealthy families went to school. Poor families needed their children to help work. Schools were not free. Often children from poor families were taught by their parents at home.Some Roman families paid school masters to teach their children. The school year started on March 24. Schools were usually just one room. There were about twelve students in a class. Often the teachers were Greek slaves. The Romans thought the Greeks were smart.Children used wax tablets. They would scratch words or numbers in the wax with a pointed stick. Roman books were on rolls of paper called scrolls. Each end of the paper was attached to a rod. The reader had to unroll each page to read the book. People used small reeds to write on the scrolls. The ink was made from a kind of tar called pitch or from an octopus.
40School lasted until the children were about age 11 School lasted until the children were about age 11. A few boys would continue to go to school, but girls went home to learn how to run a home.The boys of the wealthy class continued school. They attended a "grammar" school. There they learned Latin, Greek, grammar, and literature.At age 16 some boys continued their education. They attended classes to prepare as a public speaker.Children of very wealthy families were taught at home by tutors.
41ToysAt the end of the school day children loved to play games. Roman children played with the following toys:rattlesscootersjump ropeyo-yosseesawsswingskitesdolls made from wax or clay - Some had jointed legs and arms.ballsboard gameshobbyhorsescarts hitched to goats, ponies, or dogsmodels of animals and peoplehoops with pieces of metal on them like bellsstiltsweight lifting
42The following games were also enjoyed: tic-tac-toeknucklesbones - similar to jacks except with bonesboys played war with wooden swordsleapfrogodd or even - One child held stones in a closed hand. The other guessed if the objects were an odd or even number.
43PetsDogs were the most common pet. Other pets included birds, monkeys, and cats.FamiliesIn early Rome each family from children up to grandparents lived in one home. The head of the family was the oldest male.The head of the household had authority even over the grown members of the family.Women had no authority. The role of the woman was to take care of the children.During the first century A. D. family life changed. Women had more rights. Women could own land, run businesses, free slaves, make wills, be heirs, and get jobs.MarriageYouths married when the male was at least 14 and the female 12 years old. They could not be closely related. Women brought slaves, clothing, jewels, and furniture into the marriage. After marrying these items belonged to the husband.
44-Romans were polytheistic-they believed in many gods and goddesses Religion-Romans were polytheistic-they believed in many gods and goddesses-Many of the gods were adapted from the Greek godsGreek GodRoman GodZeus-ruler of all godsJupiter-ruler of all godsHera-wife of Zeus, protected marriageJuno-wife of Jupiter, protected marriagePoseidon-god of the seaNeptune-god of the seaRoman calendar is full of feasts and celebrations to honor the gods and goddesses4444
45Achievements of the Pax Romana Building and EngineeringGreat builders and engineersMany Roman buildings are still standing today.Romans also built durable roads, bridges, and aqueducts, or channels used to carry water over long distances.Language and LawMany modern languages based on Latin, the Roman languageWrote great plays, poems, and storiesRoman law influenced many legal systems around the world, including that of the United States.
46Main Idea 3: The spread of Christianity began during the empire. Christianity is based on the life, actions, and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.Christianity began in Judea in southwest Asia but quickly spread through the rest of the Roman world.Early Christians traveled from city to city, teaching people about their beliefs. As a result, large communities of Christians formed in many Roman cities.
47Christianity in the Roman World Some Roman leaders feared that Christians would rebel against the government.To prevent rebellion, these leaders began to persecute, or punish, Christians.Christians practiced their religion in secret to avoid persecution.PersecutionIn the 300s the emperor Constantine became a Christian.Constantine ended persecution.AcceptanceIn the 380s all non-Christian religions were banned in Rome.Christianity became a powerful influence in the Roman world.Official Religion
49Main Idea 4: Various factors helped bring about the decline of Rome. By the late 300s, Roman society was weakening.Crime rates rose.Taxes and poverty increased.The Roman education system broke down.The government fell apart.Many people no longer felt loyal to Rome.Many factors contributed to the weakening.
51Factors in Rome’s Decline Government ProblemsFor years Rome was ruled by bad emperors who were more interested in their own happiness than in ruling well.Ambitious military leaders tried to take over, but they were no better than the bad emperors.Civil wars between rival leaders added to Rome’s problems.InvasionsBarbarian invaders began to attack Roman territory in the 300s and 400s.The powerful invaders defeated Roman armies and took land away from the Romans.In 476 an invading group destroyed Rome and overthrew the last emperor. Most historians consider this event the end of the Roman Empire in western Europe.