What is Stress? Stress – is the reaction of the body and mind to everyday challenges and demands Can appear quickly (running late for the bus) Can slowly build for days (pressure to perform well on your next exam) Acute stress: Brief Chronic stress: Long term How much stress affects you depends on your Perception…(the act of becoming aware through senses) Previous experiences can have an effect on stress Name some of the things that stress out… Any examples?
Reaction to Stress Stress can have both negative and positive effects Positive stress: motivates you This type of stress inspires you to work harder Negative stress: interferes with your ability to perform It can cause you to feel distracted, overwhelmed, impatient, frustrated, or even angry. NEGATIVE STRESS CAN HARM YOUR HEALTH!!!!! What kind of symptoms do people show when they are experiencing stress? Measure your stress…
Causes of Stress Stressor – source of stress or anything that causes stress Eustress: Healthful response to a stressor Distress: Harmful response to a stressor What is the difference between good stress and bad stress? Examples… Can be real or imagined Anticipated or unexpected Can be people, objects, places, events, and situations Certain stressors like sirens affect most people the same way – causing heightened alertness. What causes your stress, may not cause stress for someone else
Your Body’s Response To Stress How does the body react to stress? When you perceive something to be dangerous, difficult, or painful, your body automatically begins a stress response Both your nervous system and endocrine system are active when your body responds to stress. The physical response is largely involuntary (automatic). The stress, regardless of type of stressor, involves three stages
Three Stages To Stress Response General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): series of body changes that result from stress. Occurs in 3 stages… Stage 1 – Alarm Your mind and body go on high alert. FIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE Stage 2 – Resistance Your body accepts and reacts to the stressor You may perform at a high level or with more endurance for a brief period Stage 3 – Exhaustion If exposure to stress is prolonged, your body loses its ability to adapt You begin to tire and lose the ability to manage stressors effectively
Stage 1- Alarm Your mind and body go on high alert. FIGHT OR FLIGHT RESPONSE
Stress and Your Health Psychosomatic Response – a physical reaction that results from stress rather than from an injury or illness Headache Weakened immune system High blood pressure Digestive disorder Mental/Emotional and Social Effects Difficulty concentrating Irritability Mood swings Using alcohol or drugs to relieve stress CREATES MORE PROBLEMS!
When Stress Becomes a Problem o The effects of stress are ADDICTIVE – it builds up o Chronic Stress – stress associated with long-term problems that are beyond a persons control o You can not eliminate all stress from your life---you can manage it!
Stress Management Techniques o Stress Management Skills: Help you manage stressors in a healthful, effective way. Techniques to prevent & deal with stressors. Protects one’s health from the harmful effects produced by the stress response. o Some skills involve strategies to prevent stress o Some focus on coping with the impact of stress o Name some ways teens can manage or ease stress…
Stress Management Techniques AVOIDING AND LIMITING STRESS Easiest way to reduce stress effects. o Use Refusal Skills o Use your refusal skills to say NO o Plan Ahead o Manage your time wisely o Think Positively o You cant control everything in your life, be we can control how we respond to events. A positive outlook limits stress by shifting your perception and the way you react to the stressor
Stress Management Techniques Handling Stress and Reducing Its Effects Try and find ways to reduce their negative effects, to lower the impact of stress on your health o Practice Relaxation Techniques Deep breathing, thinking pleasant thoughts, take a warm bath, get a massage, laughing Relaxation Response: state of calm o Redirect Your Energy Use the energy from the stressor in a constructive way, go for a walk, swim, job, or play a pick up game of basketball o Seek Support Just talking about your problem can make you feel better! Confide in someone you trust( Parent, Friend, Teacher)
Staying Healthy and Building Resiliency Developing habits that maintain your general health will also help reduce the effects of stress They also play a role in preventing stress, reducing stress, and helping your mind a body recover from stress o Get Adequate Rest o By getting adequate sleep you can face the challenges and demands of the next day. Using time management skills will allow you to get 8-10 hours of sleep each night o Get Regular Physical Activity o Can release bottled up energy and clear your mind (it helps you sleep better too!) o Eat Nutritious Foods o Good eating habits - helps your body function properly and reduces stress o Bad eating habits - contribute to stress, weaken the body, and reduce the ability to concentrate
What is depression? What causes depression? o Normal reaction to feel angry or depressed while trying to adjust to a life crisis. o Inability to cope with a life crisis. Changes in brain structure. o How is depression different from feeling sad? o Do you know someone who has been depressed? o What are some ways to tell if someone is feeling depressed?
Symptoms of depression… o Deep sadness o Apathy (lack of strong feeling, interest or concern) o Fatigue o Agitation o Sleep disturbances o Weight or appetite changes o Lack of concentration o Feelings of worthlessness o Morbid thoughts
Minor depression… Major depression… o Mood disorder accompanied by feelings of hopelessness, sadness or helplessness. o Mood disorder accompanied by long-lasting feelings of hopelessness, sadness or helplessness.
Coping with depression… What kinds of things can you do to avoid depression? o Talk with a parent, guardian, mentor or trusted adult. o Stay connected with friends. o Practice healthful behaviors, such as eating nutritious meals & exercise. o Use anger-management skills. o Practice stress-management skills. o Avoid the use of alcohol & other drugs. o Take steps to develop resiliency.
REFLECTIVE QUESTIONS: o Why is it so important for people with depression to get help? What might happen if they do not get help? o What should you do if your friend is depressed, but asked you not to tell anyone?
What is suicide? What is parasuicide? What are cluster suicides? o Intentional taking of one’s own life o Suicide attempt in which a person does not intend to die. o Series of suicides occurring within a short period of time and involving people who are connected in some way. o Suicide is never the best choice!! o Parasuicide is a cry for help!!
What are suicide prevention strategies? o Techniques that can be used to help prevent a person from thinking about, attempting, and completing suicide.
What to know about getting help… o Listen o Encourage them to seek help o Tell a trusted adult
Suicide Prevention Strategies o Look for warning signs when a teen is depressed o Listen without giving advice o Take a suicide threat seriously o Ask if the teen has a specific plan & means to follow through o Do not be sworn to secrecy o Call a parent, guardian or other responsible adult immediately o Stay with the teen until professional help arrives
Acknowledging Loss o What is loss? o What is grief? o What is anticipatory grief? o Feeling that occurs when someone dies or life situation changes o Intense emotional suffering caused by a loss, disaster or misfortune o Grief experienced prior to a loss
Acknowledging Loss o Everyone experiences loss in their life and the grief that it brings o You may have felt or experienced: o Pain of rejection o Breakup from a relationship o Death of a pet, friend, or family member o Changing schools and miss the friends you left behind o Grieving – common natural reaction to any loss that brings on strong emotions o Acknowledging and understanding your grief will help you begin the healing process
What are some causes of loss & grief? o A change in the family o Changes in living conditions o The death of a friend o Suicide o The death of a well-known person o Tragedies in the news o The end of something special
The Grieving Process o Denial or Numbness o It may be difficult to believe that the loss has occurred o Emotional release o Loss is recognized, this stage often involves crying o Anger o Person uses anger because he or she feels powerless and unfairly deprived o Bargaining o Person may make promises in the hope of changing the outcome of what happened, if what was lost can be returned
The Grieving Process o Depression o Beyond the feelings of sadness, feelings of isolation, alienation, and hopelessness may occur o Remorse o Person may become preoccupied with thoughts about how the lose could have been prevented o Acceptance o Person faces the reality of loss and experiences closure o Hope o Remembering becomes less painful, and the person begins to look toward the future
Coping with Death Coping – dealing successfully with difficult changes in your life. Death is one of the most painful losses we can experience Most people respond by… Mourning – the act of showing sorrow or grief. It includes: Talking about the person experiencing the pain of the loss Searching for a meaning Dwelling on things that cannot be changed will only add to your hurt, instead try and think about how the relationship was positive in your life
Showing Empathy What is empathy? Ability to share in another person’s emotions or feeling Having friendship and support when grieving makes the process easier. If you know someone who is grieving, here are ways you can help: Help the person recall happy, positive memories Be a sympathetic listener, and use silence when appropriate (sometimes just nodding your head shows you understand) Don’t rush the grieving process or attempt to resolve the persons grief in one day.
Symptoms of Loss & Grief Numbness Shock Loss of appetite Intestinal upsets Sleep disturbances Loss of energy Shortness of breath Confusion Crying spells Moodiness Outbursts of anger Depression
Traumatic Event or Life Crisis… Event or experience that has a stressful impact sufficient to overwhelm your normal coping strategies. They are shocking and sudden such as: Accidents Violent assaults Deaths Suicides Natural disasters After a traumatic event or life crisis you may question your sense of security and confidence. Seek support from your family members, close friends, community groups, and agencies to help manage your shock and grief.
How does one cope during a traumatic event? Spend time with a friend or family member Share your feelings of loss and pain Encourage the person to talk about his or her death Listen carefully to the person’s feelings & thoughts about the past, present & future Reassure the person with affection, hold hands or hug Share your grief with family members & friends Continue your daily routine if possible Consider what you will do to keep alive the memory of the person Allow yourself time to grieve
Community Support Common mourning rituals include (but not limited to): Memorial services Wakes Funerals All celebrate the life of the person that has died