2 What are communicable diseases? Pathogens - living organisms or particles that can cause diseaseCommunicable disease - a disease caused by pathogens that can be spread from person to personCan you think of any communicable diseases?
3 Types of pathogensViruses – Microscopic particles that can reproduce inside living cellsExamples: the common cold, the flu, Hepatits A, B, and CBacteria – one-celled organisms that live almost everywhere on EarthMost bacteria are harmless but some can cause diseases such as: strep throat, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, Lyme disease, and anthrax
4 Types of pathogens Cont’d Fungi – living organisms that have some characteristics of plant cells but cannot make their own foodCauses diseases such as: athlete’s foot and ring wormProtozoa – one-celled organisms that are larger and more complex than bacteriaExamples: malaria and toxoplasmosis
5 How pathogens enter the body Direct Contact – touching, kissing, or other close contact with a person who carries a pathogenIndirect contact – contact with objects used by a person who has a pathogenUsing a needle that has infected blood on itInhaling air, eating food, or drinking liquid that carries pathogensBeing bitten by an animal or insect that carries pathogens
6 BRAINSTORMThink about your typical day spent here at GVMS. Brainstorm and list TEN things you might touch during the day that you could infect if you were sick.6.
7 Your body’s defenseImmune system – organs, tissues and cells that destroy pathogens
8 First line of defense Mucus traps pathogens from entering the body Cilia – tiny hairs inside air passages that trap some pathogens that exit the body when you exhale or sneeze
9 Second line of defense Stomach acid Fever White blood cells Antibodies – protein substances in blood that can find, weaken or destroy certain pathogens
10 Third line of defense Immunity – resistance to a particular disease Vaccine – dead or weakened pathogens given for immunityCommon childhood vaccines:PolioPertussisMeaslesChicken PoxDiptheriaTetanus
11 Avoiding communicable diseases Wash your hands before and after preparing food and after using the bathroomCover your mouth when you sneeze or cough with a tissue or your sleeveDon’t share personal items