2What are communicable diseases? Pathogens - living organisms or particles that can cause diseaseCommunicable disease - a disease caused by pathogens that can be spread from person to personCan you think of any communicable diseases?
3Types of pathogensViruses – Microscopic particles that can reproduce inside living cellsExamples: the common cold, the flu, Hepatits A, B, and CBacteria – one-celled organisms that live almost everywhere on EarthMost bacteria are harmless but some can cause diseases such as: strep throat, gonorrhea, tuberculosis, Lyme disease, and anthrax
4Types of pathogens Cont’d Fungi – living organisms that have some characteristics of plant cells but cannot make their own foodCauses diseases such as: athlete’s foot and ring wormProtozoa – one-celled organisms that are larger and more complex than bacteriaExamples: malaria and toxoplasmosis
5How pathogens enter the body Direct Contact – touching, kissing, or other close contact with a person who carries a pathogenIndirect contact – contact with objects used by a person who has a pathogenUsing a needle that has infected blood on itInhaling air, eating food, or drinking liquid that carries pathogensBeing bitten by an animal or insect that carries pathogens
6BRAINSTORMThink about your typical day spent here at GVMS. Brainstorm and list TEN things you might touch during the day that you could infect if you were sick.6.
7Your body’s defenseImmune system – organs, tissues and cells that destroy pathogens
8First line of defense Mucus traps pathogens from entering the body Cilia – tiny hairs inside air passages that trap some pathogens that exit the body when you exhale or sneeze
9Second line of defense Stomach acid Fever White blood cells Antibodies – protein substances in blood that can find, weaken or destroy certain pathogens
10Third line of defense Immunity – resistance to a particular disease Vaccine – dead or weakened pathogens given for immunityCommon childhood vaccines:PolioPertussisMeaslesChicken PoxDiptheriaTetanus
11Avoiding communicable diseases Wash your hands before and after preparing food and after using the bathroomCover your mouth when you sneeze or cough with a tissue or your sleeveDon’t share personal items