The Trung Sisters A.D. 39 Trung Trac Trung Nhi Armies against Chinese. Lasting 3 years. Heroes!
Battle of Bach Dang A.D. 939 Ngô Quyền Against Chinese Southern Han Large wooden pikes. Shallow boats luring them in. Chinese ships trapped. Most of Han army were drowned.
Tran Hung Dao “We must weaken the enemy by drawing him into protracted campaigns. When the enemy is away from home for a long time and produces no victories and families learn of their dead, then the enemy population becomes dissatisfied and considers it a Mandate from Heaven that their armies be recalled. Time is always in our favor. Our climate, mountains, and jungles discourage the enemy; but for us they offer sanctuary and a place from which to attack.” 1228-1300 Repelled three major Mongol invasions. One of the greatest feats in world history. A brilliant and loyal general!
Nguyen Dynasty 1802-1945 Last ruling family of Vietnam Gia Long Adopted much of the Chinese culture & style. Buddhism, Taoism, and indigenous religions forbidden under Confucianist administration. Status of women lowered. A close partnership with some Frenchmen caused much Catholic influence. After the death of these Frenchmen, Christianity became forbidden. French traders and missionaries put pressure on France to protect their interests in Vietnam. France began colonizing in the 1850’s.
French Rule Treated Vietnamese as children/inferior race. Promoted French education to replace Confucianism. 80% Vietnamese become illiterate. French try to rule every aspect of Vietnamese life. Creates an environment where social & political revolution becomes crucial. During the Scholar’s Revolt (1885), Mandarins try to restore the Nguyen Dynasty to full power. Only lasted 12 years.
Two Who Want Vietnam Back! (Nationalists) Phan Boi Chau: Son of a Mandarin, hated French, looked to Japan for help; Japan not concerned with Vietnam’s ambitions. Too revolutionary and was put under house arrest the rest of his life. Phan Chu Trinh Wanted end to Mandarin system, wanted Republican gov’t, hoped French colonial occupation would end, opposed violence, believed in liberation through education and democratic principles.
Ho Chi Minh Received a French education. Travels to U.S., U.K., and France. Studies socialism. Very concerned with freeing Vietnam from foreign rule. Demanded equal rights for Vietnamese. Begins reading about Communism – hopes that it can help free his country from colonization. 1941 returns to Vietnam to lead the Viet Minh independence movement. Petitioned Harry Truman for support for Vietnamese independence. Read his Declaration of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.Declaration of Independence