Presentation on theme: "The French and Indian War. Describe the causes and major events of the French and Indian War. Analyze the causes and effects of Pontiac’s Rebellion. Summarize."— Presentation transcript:
The French and Indian War
Describe the causes and major events of the French and Indian War. Analyze the causes and effects of Pontiac’s Rebellion. Summarize how the wars and their outcomes changed the relationship between Britain and the colonies. Objectives
Terms and People George Washington – young, ambitious Virginian who led colonial troops against the French in 1754 French and Indian War – a war that pitted the British and their colonial allies against the French and Indians Pontiac’s Rebellion – an Indian uprising against the British in the Ohio River valley after the French and Indian War Proclamation of 1763 – between the British and Indians, it restricted colonial settlers to east of the Appalachian Mountains
Terms and People (continued) Albany Plan of Union – 1754 plan that called on the colonies to unite under British rule and cooperate with one another in war
How did Great Britain’s wars with France affect the American colonies? A series of wars between the European empires spread to the colonies. Colonists allied with Britain fought against the French and their Indian allies.
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French and Indian War (1754-1763) Seven Years’ War (1756-1763) Began as rivalry over Ohio Valley Washington sent to Ohio territory by governor of Virginia – Washington attacked French troops – Surrendered at Fort Necessity Became a global war 1759 Quebec fell to the British
British American Colonists French Indians
Overall, the Indians tried to maintain a balance of power between the French and the British. In the French and Indian War: Most Indians fought alongside the French because they treated the Indians with respect and generosity. The British treated Indians harshly and took their lands for farming.
The French and British fought over who controlled the Ohio River Valley and the Great Lakes area.
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In the early years of the war, from 1754 through to 1758, the British were defeated by the French and their Indian allies. A young George Washington led an early battle against the French in 1754. The death of General Edward Braddock in a French and Indian ambush was a significant defeat for the British.
New Tactics Learned
Soon groups of colonial militiamen helped the British fight the French by serving as scouts and soldiers. Rogers’ Rangers was an effective militia that included Indians fighting against the French. Colonists gained military experience
In 1758 and 1759, the British interrupted the shipment of French supplies and started to win battles. Many Indians deserted the French to fight on the British side. The Treaty of Paris of 1763 ended the war and greatly increased British territory.
They attacked British forts and the new British settlements. They tried to weaken the British in any way they could, in order to lure the French back. The British stopped supplies to the Indians. British settlers quickly moved into Indian lands in western Pennsylvania and Virginia. The Indians rebelled. The British conquest was not good for the Indians.
This Indian uprising called Pontiac’s Rebellion ended in 1764. The British agreed settlers would remain east of the Appalachian Mountains.
The BritishThe Colonies wanted more control over the colonies did not want British control wanted the colonies to help pay for the wars wanted more land for settlements wanted the colonies to join together under the Albany Plan of Union wanted to maintain their individual autonomy wanted colonies to cooperate in time of war did not want to be unfairly taxed by the British Tensions arose between the British and colonists after the French and Indian War.
Albany Plan of Union 1754 British government summoned an intercolonial congress in Albany, NY Seven colonies sent delegates Purpose was to keep Iroquois allied with the British Benjamin Franklin proposed a plan for colonial home rule that was adopted by the delegates but which never came to fruition
unite the colonies under British rule. unite the colonies in fighting wars. create a continental assembly with delegates from each colony. Colonial leader Benjamin Franklin drafted the Albany Plan of Union that would:
Franklin drew this political cartoon to encourage support of colonial unity and his plan. The colonists and the British each rejected the Albany Plan for their own reasons.
Treaty of Paris (1763) France eliminated from North American continent Spain received as compensation trans- Mississippi Louisiana and New Orleans Great Britain emerged as the dominant power in North America and the leading naval power in the world.
The French and Indian War changed the relationship between the colonies and Great Britain. The colonists increasingly resented the erosion of their autonomy and the involuntary tax burden. In the 1760s, the British placed new, unwanted taxes and regulations on the colonists.
Consequences Colonial self-esteem raised Colonists received military experience British no longer seen as invincible Tensions developed between British officers and colonists. Colonists were looked upon with contempt British officials upset that colonists did not fully support the common cause War did encourage some colonial unity
French and Spanish threat to the colonies was eliminated/reduced Indians lost the ability to play off the Europeans against each other Colonists had a new sense of destiny as a growing people with a continent open before them Britain in debt and now had troops they had to maintain in North America
Proclamation of 1763 1763 Pontiac’s Uprising – Ottawa chief Pontiac led several tribes against the British in the Ohio country, killing over 2000 soldiers and settlers Proclamation prohibited settlement in the area beyond the Appalachians Colonists defied the proclamation and pushed westward – Attempt to prevent another uprising
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Closure List one cause of the French and Indian War List two results of the war Why were the colonists upset with the Proclamation of 1763?